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Full text of "The New Jersey Quaker meeting house : a typology and inventory"

UNIVERSITVy 

PENN5YL\^\NL\ 

UBKARIES 




THE NEW JERSEY QUAKER MEETING HOUSE: A TYPOLOGY AND 

INVENTORY 

Damon Tvaryanas 

A THESIS 
in 
Historic Preservation 



Presented to the faculties of the University of Pennsylvania 
in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of 



MASTER OF SCIENCE 

1993 





Michael C<bd.arappa,(/ Lecturer , 
Folklore and Folklife, Reader 




':M^-Q 




David G. De Long, Professor of Architecture 
Advisor and Graduate Group Chairman 



FINE 



arts/nA/ooz/i^^5^^^^^ 



UN'.'EnSITY 

•.> 

PENNSYLVANIA 

UeWARIES 



Table of Contents 

Part I. 

A List of Illustrations v 

Preface ^i^ 

A Note on Dates xxii 

Chapter I . A Quaker Background 

Quakers and the Settlement of New Jersey 1 

Meeting House Design, English and American 15 

Chapter II. The Establishment of Accepted Form 

A Period of Experimentation and the Resulting 
Dominent Design Pattern 
(The Late Seventeenth Century and the 
First Half of the Eighteenth Century) 30 

Double Meeting Houses and A Quaker Revival 

(The Second Half of The Eighteenth Century) . .61 

Chapter III. Conservatism and Change 

Early Nineteenth Century Conservatism 98 

Schisms, Hicksite versus Orthodox and Gurneyite 

versus Wilburite 109 

The Twentieth Century 139 

Part II. 
An Annotated, Illustrated Inventory of Quaker Meeting 
Houses Constructed in New Jersey 

Introduction 143 

Meeting Houses of the Burlington Quarterly Meeting 

Amy's Mount 144 

Barnaget 145 

Beach Haven 149 

Bordentown 150 

Burlington 152 

Burlington (Yearly) 160 



Burlington (Hicksite) 162 

Chesterfield 165 

Chesterfield (Orthodox) 157 

East Branch 169 

Little Egg Harbor (Tuckerton) 169 

Little Egg Harbor (Bridgeport) 171 

Lower Mansfield 173 

Mansfield 174 

Mount Holly 179 

Mount Holly (Orthodox) 185 

Old Springfield 185 

Rancocas 187 

Stony Brook 190 

Trenton 194 

Trenton (Orthodox) 197 

Upper Freehold 197 

Upper Springfield 199 

Vincentown 203 

Meeting Houses of the Haddonfield Quarterly Meeting 

Atlantic City (Orthodox) 205 

Bakersville 205 

Cropwell 207 

Easton 210 

Evesham 211 

Galloway 213 

Haddonfield 218 

Haddonfield (Orthodox) 219 

Haddonfield (Hicksite) 221 

Hopewell 224 

Medford 226 

Medford (Hicksite) 229 

Merchantville 231 

Moorestown 233 

Moorestown (Orthodox) 238 

Newton 239 

Newton (Hicksite) 243 

Sommer's Meeting 249 

Westfield 251 

Westfield (Orthodox) 252 

Meeting Houses of The Salem Quarterly Meeting 

Allowaystown 255 

Alloway's Creek 258 

Cape May 251 

Greenwich 253 

Greenwich (Hicksite) 255 

Maurice River 265 

Pliesgrove 274 

Pilesgrove (Orthodox) 279 



Salem 280 

Salem (Orthodox) 292 

Seaville 293 

Upper Greenwich 298 

Upper Penn's Neck 300 

Woodbury 302 

Woolwich 305 

Meeting Houses of the Shrewsbury and Rahway Quarterly 
Meeting 

Amboy 309 

Hardwick 310 

Plainfield 311 

Plainfield (Orthodox) 315 

Quakertown 316 

Rahway 318 

Rahway (Orthodox) 321 

Randolph 322 

Shrewsbury 324 

Shrewsbury (Orthodox) 327 

Squan 329 

Squankum 330 

Topanemus 332 

Woodbridge 333 

Glossary 335 

Bibliography 342 



A List of Illustrations 



Fig. 1 . "A Map of East and West Jersey Being an 

Exact Survey Taken By Mr. John Worlidge." 

Mr. John Thornton, London, Library of 

Congress 2 

Fig. 2. Map, "New Jersey Quaker Meeting Houses, 
1672-1796." taken from Wacker, Land and 
People 4 

Fig. 3. "A Map of The Philadelphia Yearly Meeting, 
1838," Friends Historical Library, 
Swarthmore College 11 

Fig. 4. "Map of Friends Meetings," 1936, Friends 

Historical Society, Swarthmore College ... 12 

Fig. 5a. Photo Amersham Meeting House. Taken from 
Hubert Lidbetter, The Friends Meeting 
House 19 

b. Plan, Amersham Meeting House. Taken from 
Hubert Lidbetter, The Friends Meeting 
House 20 

Fig. 6a. Photo Chesterfield Meeting House, N.J. 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection, Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania 22 

b. Plan, Chesterfield Meeting House, redrawn 
from Historic American Building Survey, 
taken from Chiarappa, " The first and the 
best sort. . ." 22 

Fig. 7a. The Early or Primitive Meeting House, 

sketch and plan 26 

b. The Bank Meeting House Type, sketch and 

plan 26 

c. A Doubled Meeting House Type, Single Story, 
sketch and plan 26 

d. The Doubled Meeting House Type, sketch 

and plan 26 

Fig. 8. Maurice River Meeting House, T. Chalkey 

Matlack Collection, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania 34 



Fig. 9. Sommer's Point Meeting House, T. Chalkey 
Matlack Collection, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania 34 

Fig. 10. Tuckerton Meeting House, T. Chalkey 

Matlack Collection, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania 35 

Fig. 11. Map of New Jersey Showing Inner and Outer 
Coastal Plains, Taken from Trindell, 
Historical Geography of Southern New Jersey. 39 

Fig. 12. Seaville Meeting House, Author's Photo ... 42 

Fig. 13. Seaville Meeting House, Plan 42 

Fig. 14. Barnaget Meeting House, T. Chalkey 

Matlack Collection, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania 43 

Fig. 15. Barnaget Meeting House, Plan 43 

Fig. 15. Burlington Meeting House, T. Chalkey 

Matlack Collection, Historical Society 

of Pennsylvania 45 

Fig. 17. Burlington Meeting House, Plan, Print 
Collection, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania 46 

Fig. 18. Center Square Meeting House, Taken from 

Watson's Annals 50 

Fig. 19. Second Bank Meeting House, Taken from 

Watson's Annals 50 

Fig. 20. Great Meeting House, Taken from, 

Watson's Annals 54 

Fig. 21. Great Meeting House from George Heap, 

"An East Prospect of the City of Philadelphia 
taken by George Heap under the direction of 
Nicholas Skull, Surveyor General of the 
Province of Pennsylvania," engraving, 1754, 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania 55 

Fig. 22. Wilmington Meeting House, Taken from Wilson, 

Philadelphia Quakers 55 

Fig. 23. Haddonfield Meeting House, T. Chalkey 

Matlack Collection, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania 59 



Fig. 24. Trenton Meeting House, possession 

of the Trenton Meeting of Friends 59 

Fig. 25. Upper Springfield Meeting House, T. Chalkey 
Matlack Collection, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania 50 

Fig. 25. Old Springfield Meeting House, 

author's photo 50 

Fig. 27. East Branch Meeting House, T. Chalkey 

Matlack Collection, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania 51 

Fig. 28. Arney's Mount Meeting House, 

author's photo 52 

Fig. 29. Greenwich Meeting House, author's photo. . . 63 

Fig. 30. Plan, Greenwich Meeting House 53 

Fig. 31. Woodbury Meeting House, T. Chalkey 

Matlack Collection, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania 54 

Fig. 32. Plan, Woodbury Meeting House, from Historic 

American Building Survey Taken from Chiarappa, 
"The first and best sort..." 54 

Fig. 33. Bordentown Meeting House, author's photo . . 55 

Fig. 34. Plan, Bordentown Meeting House 55 

Fig. 35. Alloway's Creek Meeting House, T. Chalkey 
Matlack Collection, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania 55 

Fig. 35. Plan, Alloway's Creek Meeting House, 
Drawn by Carl Lounsbury, Salem County 
Historical Society 55 

Fig. 37. Hardwick Meeting House, sketch, T. Chalkey 
Matlack Collection, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania 68 

Fig. 38. Quakertown Meeting House, author's photo . . 68 

Fig. 39. Mount Laurel Meeting House, author's photo . 59 

Fig. 40. Easton Meeting House, author's photo .... 59 



Vlll 



Fig. 41. Cropwell Meeting House, T. Chalkey 

Matlack Collection, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania 70 

Fig. 42. Plan, Cropwell Meeting House 70 

Fig. 43. Salem Meeting House, T. Chalkey 

Matlack Collection, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania 75 

Fig. 44. Upper Greenwich Meeting House, 

author's photo 76 

Fig. 45. Plan, Upper Greenwich Meeting House 76 

Fig. 46. Pilesgrove Meeting House, author's photo . . 77 

Fig. 47. Plainfield Meeting House, T. Chalkey 

Matlack Collection, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania 77 

Fig. 48. Burlington Meeting House, author's photo . . 78 

Fig. 49. The population of New Jersey Quakers by 

year, 1570-1810, compiled from historical 
estimates 94 

Fig. 50 The estimated total sguare footage of 

meeting houses in New Jersey by year, from 
1670-1810 95 

Fig. 51 The total number of existing meeting 

houses by year from 1670-1810 95 

Fig. 52 Wilmington Meeting House, author's photo . .104 

Fig. 53 Moorestown Meeting House, author's photo . .104 

Fig. 54 Newton Meeting House, T. Chalkey Matlack 
Collection, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania 105 

Fig. 55 Mansfield Meeting House, author's photo. . .106 

Fig. 56 Plan, Mansfield Meeting House 106 

Fig. 57 Woolwich Meeting House, author's photo . . .107 

Fig. 58 Plan, Woolwich Meeting House, redrawn form 
Historic American Building Survey by 
Chiarappa, "The first and the best sort... .107 



Fig. 59 Medford Meeting House, T. Chalkey 

Matlack Collection, Historical Society 

of Pennsylvania 108 

Fig. 60 Chesterfield Orthodox Meeting House, 

author's photo 115 

Fig. 61 Greenwich Hicksite Meeting House, T. Chalkey 

Matlack Collection, Historically Society . .116 

Fig. 62 Plan, Greenwich Hicksite Meeting House . . .116 

Fig. 63 Salem Orthodox Meeting House author's photo. 118 

Fig. 64 Plan, Salem Orthodox Meeting House 118 

Fig. 65 Mansfield Orthodox Meeting House, author's 

photo 119 

Fig. 66 Newton Hicksite Meeting House, pre-renovation 
Drawing, T. Chalkey Matlack Collection, 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania 119 

Fig. 67 Woodstown Orthodox, T. Chalkey Matlack 
Collection Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania 120 

Fig. 68 Arch Street Meeting House, Wilson, 

Philadelphia Quakers 124 

Fig. 69 Race Street Meeting house, author's photo. .124 

Fig. 70 Outhouse, Chesterfield Orthodox Meeting House, 
author's photo 125 

Fig. 71 Richmond Meeting House, built 1877, Bronner, 

An English View 125 

Fig. 72 Richmond Meeting House, built 1882, Bronner, 

An English view 129 

Fig. 73 Tuckerton meeting house, T. Chalkey Matlack 
Collection, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania 1 29 

Fig. 74 Beach Haven Meeting House, T. Chalkey Matlack 
Collection, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania 131 

Fig. 75 Shrewsbury Orthodox Meeting House, T. Chalkey 
Matlack Collection, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania 131 



Fig. 76 Medford Hicksite Meeting House, rear, T. 
Chalkey Matlack Collection, Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania 133 

Fig. 77 Eve light, Haddonfield Orthodox Meeting 

House, author's photo 133 

Fig. 78 Moorestown Orthodox Meeting House, 

author's Photo 135 

Fig. 79 Moorestown Shoolhouse, T. Chalkey 

Matlack Collection, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania 135 

Fig. 80 Haddonfield Hicksite Meeting House, 

author's photo 142 

Fig. 81 Amy's Mount Meeting House, main facade, T. 
Chalkey Matlack Collection, Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania 145 

Fig. 82 Amy's Mount Meeting House, street facade, 

author's photo 145 

Fig. 83 Barnaget Meeting House, T. Chalkey Matlack 
Collection, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania 148 

Fig. 84 Beach Haven Meeting House, T. Chalkey Matlack 
Collection, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania 1 48 

Fig. 85 Bordentown Meeting House, author's photo . .151 

Fig. 85 Bordentown Meeting House, T. Chalkey Matlack 
Collection, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania 151 

Fig. 87 Hexagonal Burlington Meeting House, 

wash drawing, Graphics Collection, Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania 154 

Fig. 88 Plan, Hexagonal Burlington Meeting House, 
Graphics Collection, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania 154 

Fig. 89 Burlington Meeting House, author's photo . .158 

Fig. 90 Burlington Meeting House, rear, 

author's photo 158 



Fig. 91 Burlington Meeting House, T. Chalkey Matlack 
Collection, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania 159 

Fig. 92 Interior, Burlington Meeting House, 

author's photo 159 

Fig. 93 Burlington Hicksite Meeting House, before 
1929 alterations, T. Chalkey Matlack 
Collection, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania 164 

Fig. 94 Burlington Hicksite Meeting House, post 
1929 alterations, T. Chalkey Matlack 
Collection, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania 154 

Fig. 95 Chesterfield Meeting House, author's photo .158 

Fig. 96 Chesterfield Orthodox Meeting House, T. 
Chalkey Matlack Collection, Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania 1 58 

Fig. 97 East Branch Meeting House, T. Chalkey 

Matlack Collection, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania 170 

Fig. 98 Little Egg Harbor Meeting House, T. Chalkey 
Matlack Collection, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania 172 

Fig. 99 Tuckerton Meeting House, T. Chalkey 

Matlack Collection, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania 172 

Fig. 100 Old Mansfield Meeting House, T. Chalkey 

Matlack Collection, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania 176 

Fig. 101 Mansfield Meeting House, street facade, 

author's photo 177 

Fig. 102 Mansfield Meeting House, rear, author's 

photo 177 

Fig. 103 Mansfield Orthodox Meeting House, T. Chalkey 
Matlack Collection, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania 178 

Fig. 104 Mansfield Orthodox Meeting House, 

author's photo 178 



Fig. 105 Mount Holly Meeting House, main facade, 

author's photo 183 

Fig. 106 Mount Holly Meeting House, rear, 

author's photo 183 

Fig. 107 Mount Holly Orthodox Meeting House, T. 
Chalkey Matlack Collection, Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania 186 

Fig. 108 Mount Holly Orthodox Meeting House, T. Chalkey 
Matlack Collection, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania 186 

Fig. 109 Copany Meeting House, T. Chalkey Matlack 
Collection, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania 188 

Fig. 110 Copany Meeting House, author's photo . . . .188 

Fig. Ill Rancocas Meeting House, T. Chalkey Matlack 
Collection, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania 191 

Fig. 112 Rancocas Meeting House, rear author's 

photos 191 

Fig. 113a Rancocas Meeting House, addition of unknown 

date, author's photo 192 

b Rancocas Meeting House, original section, 

1772, author's photo 192 

Fig. 114 Stony Brook Meeting House, author's photo. .193 

Fig. 115 Stony Brook Meeting House, T. Chalkey 

Matlack Collection, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania 193 

Fig. 116 Trenton Meeting House, before remodelling. 

Collection of Trenton Friends Meeting. . . .196 

Fig. 117 Trenton Meeting House, main facade, 

author's photo 196 

Fig. 118 Trenton Orthodox Meeting House, author's 

photo 198 

Fig. 119 Ellisdale School House, T. Chalkey 

Matlack Collection, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania 198 



Fig. 120 Upper Springfield Meeting House, T. Chalkey 
Matlack Collection, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania 201 

Fig. 121 Upper Springfield Meeting House, west wall, 
T. Chalkey Matlack Collection, Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania 201 

Fig. 122 Upper Springfield Meeting House, 

author's photo 202 

Fig. 123 Vincentown Meeting House, T. Chalkey Matlack 
Collection, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania 204 

Fig. 124 Vincentown Grange Building, author's 

photo 204 

Fig. 125 Atlantic City Orthodox Meeting House T. Chalkey 
Matlack Collection, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania 206 

Fig. 126 Atlantic City Orthodox Meeting House, T. Chalkey 
Matlack Collection, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania 206 

Fig. 127 Cropwell Meeting House, author's photo . . .208 

Fig. 128 Easton Meeting House, T. Chalkey Matlack 
Collection, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania 212 

Fig. 129 Evesham Meeting House, T. Chalkey Matlack 
Collection, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania 214 

Fig. 130 Evesham Meting House, west wall, T. Chalkey 
Matlack Collection, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania 215 

Fig. 131 Evesham Meeting House, rear, author's 

photo 215 

Fig. 132 Possible Meeting House, Leed's Point Street 

facade, T. Chalkey Matlack Collection, Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania 217 

Fig. 133 Possible meeting house, Leed's Point, rear 
section, T. Chalkey Matlack Collection, 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania 217 



Fig. 134 Haddonfield Meeting House, T. Chalkey 

Matlack Collection, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania 220 

Fig. 135 Haddonfield Orthodox Meeting House, 

author's photo 222 

Fig. 136 Haddonfield Orthodox Meeting House, rear, 
T. Chalkey Matlack Collection, Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania 222 

Fig. 137 Haddonfield Hicksite Meeting House, T. 
Chalkey Matlack Collection, Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania 223 

Fig. 138 Haddonfield Hicksite Meeting House, rear, 
T. Chalkey Matlack Collection, Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania 223 

Fig. 139 Haddonfield Hicksite Meeting House, 

author's photo 225 

Fig. 140 Medford Orthodox Meeting House, 

author's photo 228 

Fig. 141 Medford Orthodox Meeting House, rear, 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection, Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania 228 

Fig. 142 Medford Hicksite Meeting House, 

author's photo 230 

Fig. 143 Medford Hicksite Meeting House, rear, 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection, Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania 230 

Fig. 144 Merchantville Meeting House, T. Chalkey 

Matlack Collection, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania 232 

Fig. 145 Moorestown Hicksite Meeting House, T. 
Chalkey Matlack Collection, Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania 235 

Fig. 146 Moorestown Hicksite Meeting House, 

author's photo 235 

Fig. 147 Moorestown Orthodox and Hicksite Meeting 
Houses and School House, Woodward's 
History of Burlington County 236 



Fig. 148 Moorestown Orthodox Meeting House, T. 
Chalkey Matlack Collection, Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania 240 

Fig. 149 Moorestown Orthodox Meeting House, front, 

author's photo 241 

Fig. 150 Moorestown Orthodox Meeting House, rear, 

author's photo 241 

Fig. 151 Interior, Moorestown Orthodox Meeting 
House, T. Chalkey Matlack Collection, 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania 242 

Fig. 152 Newton Meeting House, T. Chalkey Matlack 
Collection, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania 244 

Fig. 153 Possible Meeting House, Newton, T. 

Chalkey Matlack Collection, Historical 

Society of Pennsylvania 245 

Fig. 154 Newton Hicksite Meeting House, copy of 
drawing, T. Chalkey Matlack Collection, 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania 247 

Fig. 155 Newton Hicksite Meeting House, 

author's photo 248 

Fig. 155 Newton Hicksite Meeting House, rear, 

author's photo 248 

Fig. 157 Sommer's Point Meeting House, drawing, 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection, Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania 250 

Fig. 158 Westfield Meeting House, author's photo. . .253 

Fig. 159 Westfield Meeting House, rear, 

author's photo 253 

Fig. 160 Westfield Meeting House (20th c.) 

author's photo 254 

Fig. 161 Westfield Orthodox Meeting House, 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection, Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania 254 

Fig. 152 Survey, Head of Alloway's Creek Meeting 
House, Friend's Historical Library, 
Swarthmore 256 



Fig. 163 Lower Alloway's Creek Meeting House, 

author's photo 250 

Fig. 154 Rear, Lower Alloway's Creek Meeting Houses, 

author's photo 250 

Fig. 165 Greenwich Meeting House, author's photo. . .257 

Fig. 155 Rear, Greenwich Meeting House, 

author's photo 257 

Fig. 157 Interior, Greenwich Meeting House, 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection, Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania 258 

Fig. 168 Interior, Greenwich Meeting House, 

author's photo 259 

Fig. 159 Interior, Greenwich Meeting House, 

author's photo 269 

Fig. 170 Survey, Greenwich Meeting House, Friend's 

Historical Library, Swarthmore college . . .270 

Fig. 171 Greenwich Hicksite Meeting House, 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection, Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania 272 

Fig. 172 Greenwich Hicksite Meeting House, 

author's photo 273 

Fig. 173 Rear, Greenwich Hicksite Meeting House, 

author's photo 273 

Fig. 174 Maurice River Meeting House, 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection, Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania 275 

Fig. 175 Pilesgrove Meeting House, T. Chalkey 

Matlack Collection, Historical Society 

of Pennsylvania 277 

Fig. 176 Side, Pilesgrove Meeting House, 

author's photo 277 

Fig. 177 Rear, Pilesgrove Meeting House, T. Chalkey 
Matlack Collection, Historical Society 
of Pennsylvania 278 

Fig. 178 Pilesgrove Orthodox Meeting House, T. 
Chalkey Matlack Collection, Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania 278 



Fig. 179 Receipt for Brickwork, Salem Meeting House, 
c. 1717, Friends Historical Library, 
Swarthmore College 285 

Fig. 180 Building receipt, Salem Meeting House, 
c. 1717, Friends Historical Library, 
Swarthmore College 286 

Fig. 181 "Meeting House Debt to Charles Ellis, 
11 month 23 1772" Salem County 
Historical Society 288 

Fig. 182 Salem Meeting House, author's photo 291 

Fig. 183 Salem Orthodox Meeting House, T. Chalkey 
Matlack Collection, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania 291 

Fig. 184 Rear, Salem Orthodox Meeting House, T. Chalkey 
Matlack Collection, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania 294 

Fig. 185 Rear, Salem Orthodox Meeting House, 

author's photo 294 

Fig. 186 Seaville Meeting House, T. Chalkey, Matlack 
Collection, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania 295 

Seaville Meeting House, author's photo . . .296 

Rear, Seaville Meeting House, 

author's photo 296 

Interior, Seaville Meeting House, T. 
Chalkey, Matlack Collection, Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania 297 

Fig. 190 Upper Greenwich Meeting House, 

author's photo 301 

Fig. 191 Upper Greenwich Meeting House, T. 

Chalkey, Matlack Collection, Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania 301 

Fig. 192 Pedricktown Meeting House, T. 

Chalkey, Matlack Collection, Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania 303 

Fig. 193 Garage out building, Pedricktown T. 

Chalkey Matlack Collection, Historical 

Society of Pennsylvania 303 



ig. 


187 


ig. 


188 


ig. 


189 



Fig. 194 Woodbury Meeting House, T. 

Chalkey Matlack Collection, Historical 

Society of Pennsylvania 305 

Fig. 195 Mullica Hill Meeting House, T. 

Chalkey Matlack Collection, Historical 

Society of Pennsylvania 308 

Fig. 196 Hardwick Meeting House, sketch, T. 

Chalkey Matlack Collection, Historical 

Society of Pennsylvania 312 

Fig. 197 Plainfield Meeting House, T. 

Chalkey Matlack Collection, Historical 

Society of Pennsylvania 314 

Fig. 198 Plainfield Orthodox Meeting House, T. 
Chalkey Matlack Collection, Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania 314 

Fig. 199 Sketch, Quakertown Meeting House, T. 

Chalkey Matlack Collection, Historical 

Society of Pennsylvania 319 

Fig. 200 Quakertown Meeting House, author's photo . .319 

Fig. 201 Rahway Meeting House, T. Chalkey Matlack 
Collection, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania 323 

Fig. 202 Rahway Orthodox Meeting House, T. 

Chalkey Matlack Collection, Historical 

Society of Pennsylvania 323 

Fig. 203 Randolf Meeting House, T. Chalkey Matlack 
Collection, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania 326 

Fig. 204 Shrewsbury Meeting House, T. Chalkey 

Matlack Collection, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania 328 

Fig. 205 Shrewsbury Orthodox Meeting House, T. 
Chalkey Matlack Collection, Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania 328 

Fig. 206 Old Sguan Meeting House, T. Chalkey 

Matlack Collection, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania 331 

Fig. 207 Squan Meeting House, T. Chalkey Matlack 

Collection, H. S. of Pennsylvania 331 



Preface 

In the years following the Great Depression and 

preceeding the Second World War, a newspaper editor, named 

Henry Charleton Beck traveled the back roads of New Jersey. 

Beck recorded the places he saw and the tales he heard and 

published them, first as newspaper articles and then later 

as a highly sucessful series of books. 

"...many towns, too tiny and uncertain for 
placement on present day maps, have been found to 
be villages of importance long before the first 
flares of the Revolution. Others which have 
vanished entirely were called to mind by those who 
lived near their sites, remembering the strange 
fireside tales of their f orebearers . Still other 
hamlets and less, mere clusters of dwellings at 
foresaken crossroads, have hidden their past in 
brooding silence and decay. While the world 
outside has been growing up, this world inside has 
been growing down."^ 

Today, over half a century later, the once distant 

"outside world" has grown to encroach upon that which Beck 

defined as the "inside." Under the twin pressures of growth 

and change, many of these same crossroads, towns and 

hamlets, those which survived "growing down," are now once 

again faced with a crisis of existance. As suburbanization 

reconfigures the landscape of rural and small town New 

Jersey, the threat exists that centuries old communiuties 

may lose their sense of identity in the resulting sprawl. 

Traditional place names, in many cases, will soon be less 



^ Henry C. Beck, Forgotten Towns of Southern New Jersey 
(New York: E.P. Dutton & Co., Inc., 1936), 8. 



XX 



relevent to local residents than their zip codes. Once the 
center both physically and symboliclly of many New Jersey 
towns, Quaker meeting houses are tangable and conspicous 
reminders of thier communities' past and as such symbols 
important to their present and future. The goal of this 
thesis is to create an historical framework for the 
understanding of these buildings; a context, hopefully, of 
aid to those persons who are intrusted with the care of 
these buildings and the future of the communities in which 
they stand. This thesis includes both a typological 
examination of Quaker meeting house form as it developed in 
New Jersey and an anotated, illustrated inventory of every 
meeting house known to have been constructed within what is 
today the State of New Jersey, once the Provinces of East 
and West New Jersey. 

The process by which the information related here has 
been assembled has taken the better part of a year. Every 
surviving New Jersey Quaker meeting house was visited as 
well as many in Pennsylvania, Maryland and Delaware. In 
addition to the resources available in the library system of 
the University of Pennsylvania, the Collections of the 
Friends Historical Library at Swarthmore College have been 
invaluable in the preparation of this paper. Swarthmore' s 
Quaker Collection, as one of the two joint repositories for 
the papers of the Philadelphia Yearly Meeting, represents in 
manuscript form, a large portion of the Delaware Valley's 



XXI 

seventeenth, eighteenth, nineteenth and twentieth century 
history. And finally, as far as sources go, I would like to 
call to attention the work of an early twentieth century 
Quaker Historian, T. Chalkey Matlack of Moorestown, N.J. 
Without Mr. Matlack' s research, copiously recorded in 
numerous small notebooks preserved at the Historical Society 
of Pennsylvania, this thesis, especially its second part, 
could not possibly have been completed in the time period it 
was and, in fact, much of the information contained in it 
would have been lost to history entirely. I would like to 
thank my thesis advisor, the Director of the Graduate 
Program of Historic Preservation at the University of 
Pennsylvania, Dr. David De Long and my thesis reader. Dr. 
Michael Chiarappa without whose guidance this thesis could 
not have become a reality. And finally, I wish to thank my 
fiancee, Helen Rupp who gave me her seemingly limitless 
support and patience. 



XXll 

A Note On Dates 

One of the most confusing problems faced by the 
historian is the question of Calendars. A primary source, 
letter, journal entry, newspaper article, will, deed, legal 
document, or inscription may clearly bear a date, but unless 
one understands the Calendar system which that (most likely) 
long dead author has referenced, it is impossible to 
correlate the date given on the document with the Gregorian 
Calendar in use today. The problem, in regards to this work, 
primarily involves the 1751 act of the English Parliament, 
which, beginning in 1752, replaced the flawed Julian 
Calendar with the more accurate Gregorian. Previous to this 
Act, and in keeping with a twelfth century decree of the 
Anglican Church, the year began on the day of the 
Annunciation, better known as the 25th of March or the 
vernal equinox. The year, thus beginning on the 25th of 
March was known as the Ecclesiastical, Legal or Civil Year. 
Since the Norman Conquest (1066), the practice of beginning 
the year with the first of January was common for English 
subjects when defining a "Historical Year." The resulting 
confusion was often mitigated through the use of a double 
form of date in the first months of a new year. Therefore, a 
date which we with our present Calendar would recognize as 
February 15, 1701, might have been written February 15, 
1700/01. Quakers, before 1752, used the Ecclesiastical year 
for letters and meeting minutes but for legal instruments 



xxiii 
the double date reference system was customarily used. After 
1752, in compliance with the act of Parliament, Friends 
began their year on January first. Quakers added one further 
complication. Both before and after the date of 1752, 
Friends refused to use "Pagan" names for the days of the 
week and months like Monday (Moon day), Thursday (Thor's 
day) and Sunday (Sun day) or July (named for Julius Caesar), 
June (named for Juno) and August (named for Augustus 
Caesar). Instead, they substituted a numerical system which 
before 1752 termed March the first month, and after called 
it the third. Therefore, the example of February 15, 1700 
previously given, would in "Quaker" appear as the 15th day 
of the 12th mo. 1700. The same day of the month, fifty two 
years later, and after the Calendar change, would have been 
written, the 15th day of the 2nd mo. 1753.^ 

A basic understanding of both the Calendar change and 
Quaker idiosyncracies is necessary as this thesis relies on 
both primary and secondary sources for its dates. When dates 
are given, every effort has been made to include the 
verbatim text of the original source and when appropriate 
the modern Calendar translation. Inevitably, however, some 
dates within this work are derived from secondary sources, 
and therefore the possibility of error exists. 



^ "Our Calendar." The Gilbert Cope Foundation of 
Genealogical and Historical Research, Third Edition, 1945, 
Friends Historical Library, Swarthmore College. 



Chapter I: A Quaker Background 

Quakers and the Settlement of New Jersey 

Every day in schools across the United States, children 
are taught the story of William Penn's colony; a Quaker 
settlement that offered religious freedom to all those who 
chose to live there. Few realize that the road for the 
establishment of Pennsylvania was paved first in New Jersey 
(Fig. 1). Under the influence of Penn and the Society of 
Friends, Quakers began, in 1675, colonization of the 
Province of West New Jersey seven years before 
Pennsylvania.'^ Successes and failures in New Jersey taught 
the lessons that were to make Penn's more famous colony 
successful. The town of Burlington, N.J. served as the prime 
staging area for the settlement of Philadelphia and the 
Jersey hinterlands provided the raw materials for building 
the new city while its recently established farms provided 
the food to feed Philadelphia in its fledgling days. As late 
as 1742, Governor Morris of New Jersey stated proudly that, 
"Pensilvania cannot build a ship, or even a tolerable House, 
nor ship a Hogshead or a pine stave," without wood from New 



^ While small populations of Quakers, immigrants from 
New York and New England, were present in the colony of East 
Jersey several years before the settlement of West Jersey, 
they were small unorganized groups among larger populations, 
many converted to Anglicanism and the rest were soon 
absorbed by the dominant West Jersey and Philadelphia Quaker 
culture. Peter 0. Wacker, Land and People, A Cultural 
Geography of Preindustrial New Jersey and Settlement Paterns 
(New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1975), 180. 




/ ' 

Fig. 1, A Map of East and West Jersey Being an Exact Survey 
taken by Mr. John Worlidge. Mr. John Thorton, London 
c. 1590-1700, Library of Congress 



3 

Jersey/ Little of this history is popular knowledge. Today 
the chief remaining signs of Quaker influence in the region 
are the meeting houses. Although more common in south 
western New Jersey, they are scattered across the entire 
state at rural crossroads, in towns, and in urban Camden and 
the New Jersey portion of Philadelphia's suburban sprawl 
(Fig. 2). These buildings remain, testimony to the Society 
that shaped the area's culture. 

Quaker settlement in the Delaware Valley began in 
Salem, New Jersey in 1675. Founded by John Fenwick (1635- 
1683) and initially known as Fenwick' s Colony, Salem is 
located on the Delaware River in the extreme south westerly 
portion of what is today the State of New Jersey.^ Less 
than two years later a second Quaker settlement was in 
place, much further up the river at Burlington.^ The 
founding of Salem and Burlington were not the first Quaker 



Roger T. Trindell, "The Ports of Salem and Greenwich 
In the Eighteenth Century," New Jersey History 86 (1968): 
203, quoting a letter to the Lords of Trade published in 
N.J. Hist. Soc, 156. 

^ Francis James Dallet Jr., "Francis Collins, Friend," 
Proceedings of the New Jersey Historical Society 67:1, 62; 
Salem Quarter, The Quakers, Salem Quarterly Meeting Southern 
New Jersey 1675-1990 (Pennsville, N.J.: Salem Quarterly 
Meeting, 1990), 211, and John E. Pomfret, The Province of 
West Jersey 1609-1702, A History of the Origins Of An 
American Colony (New York: Octagon Books, 1976), 65 and 75. 
John Fenwick was known as something of a renegade, a 
stubborn and courageous man. He had served under both 
Cromwell and Monck, achieving the rank of Major. Granted 
Amnesty by Charles II, he converted to Quakerism after 
previously considering himself an independent. 

^ Pomfret, 102-104. 




— I 4 



Map 3 9 



Fig. 2 New Jersey Quaker Meeting Houses, 1672-1796, Taken 
from Wacker, Land and People. . . . 



5 

forays into the Americas. Quakers had travelled the New 
World since 1655, but these first American Friends were 
missionaries, only a very small number immigrants.^ All 
things considered, the dates of these first Quaker 
footprints in the New World soil are extraordinarily early. 
Early not when compared with the first New World European 
settlements but remarkably early considering the date of the 
founding of Quakerism. The Society of Friends had its birth 
around 1650.^ Within five years Quaker missionaries were 
walking American shores and within twenty-five years 
colonies were being founded. The brief span of time between 
the founding of Quakerism and its introduction to the 
Delaware Valley is extremely important in understanding how 
the Society of Friends developed here and how it found 
architectural expression. Early Quakers reached the New 
World as the Society of Friends was in its very years of 
infancy. The defining social and religious attributes of the 
group were still much in the process of development. 

The story behind the founding of their first two 
colonies is complex, one of intertwined economic and 
religious motivation. The main figure behind the enterprise 
was Edward Byllynge (d.1687). Byllynge was a wealthy English 



Frederick B. Tolles, Quakers and The Atlantic Culture 
(New York: Macmillan Company, 1947), 9. Tolles states that 
between 1655 and 1662 at least 60 Quakers made the 
transatlantic crossing. 

^ Ibid, 4. 



6 

Friend who, because of imprudent personal investments, was 
faced with bankruptcy; serious circumstances in seventeenth- 
century England.^ In 1674, when the opportunity to purchase 
the holdings of Lord Berkeley in New Jersey was given him, 
Byllynge saw the opportunity both to aid his Quaker brethren 
and to redeem himself financially J° 

Because of his excessive debts, Byllynge could not 
purchase the property in his name. Instead he enlisted the 
aid of John Fenwick. In return for fronting the venture, 
Fenwick received a ten percent interest and turned the 
remaining shares in the property over to William Penn, Gawen 
Laurie and Nicholas Lucas, prominent and influential 
Quakers, who would manage Byllynge' s share in trust. 
Contrary to the wishes of Byllynge, Penn, Laurie and Lucas, 
Fenwick sold portions of his New Jersey lands and sailed to 
New Jersey claiming the region that became Salem as his. 
Byllynge believed Fenwick' s share to be an undivided 
interest and thought the financial success of the enterprise 



^ Pomfret, 65. Edward Byllynge was a convinced Quaker, 
converted while serving as a calvary officer in Scotland. An 
acquaintance of George Fox, Byllynge moved to London in 1659 
and took up the occupation of Brewer. There, while often the 
subject of intense persecution himself, he became 
influential in efforts to relieve other Quakers so troubled. 
Despite his initial prominence among Quakers, his financial 
situation deteriorated to the point his reputation suffered 
greatly. In 1673, a pamphlet was published titled, "A 
Serious Exposition with B.E., An Eminent Quaker, About His 
Late Breaking Neer Forty Thousand Pounds, A Great Part 
Whereof Was Moneys Of The Quakers Publique Stock." 

^° Ibid, 65-66. 



7 

to be linked to a unified settlement effort. Penn, Laurie 
and Lucas also saw advantage in unifying settlement. It 
would enable the trustees to wield the kind of control that 
would ensure the colony became everything they wished, a 
haven for economically and legally beleaguered Quakers. 
Shortly, after battles with both the Governor of New York 
and with Fenwick, they were able to bring Salem under their 
control and even more importantly, by 1681, won the right of 
self government answerable only to the Crown, creating the 
world's first Quaker colony. It was to be a short lived 
experiment." Purchase of West Jersey property was not 
restricted to Quakers; it was open to anyone with a modest 
amount of capital. ^^ The majority of purchasers, however, 
were Quakers; only one purchaser of the initial shares was a 
non-Quaker . ^^ The Society of Friends, at least in the early 
years of Delaware Valley settlement, encouraged migration 
among certain populations of its members. The areas in which 
Quakerism grew with the most strength were also among the 
most economically challenged in the British Isles. Primarily 
an agrarian group, Quakers in these areas worked marginally 
productive but expensive lands, lands they could at best 



" Ibid, 65-85. 

^^ The trustees formed a joint stock company composed 
of 100 equal shares valued at £350 each. Partial shares were 
sold. Some purchasers held portions as small as 1/20 of a 
share, the cost therefore being as low as £17.5. Ibid, 86. 

^^ Ralph K. Turp, West Jersey Under Four Flags 
(Philadelphia: Dorrance & Company, 1975), 283. 



8 

only afford to lease. The Society of Friends played an 
active role in the lives of its members. Young Quaker men 
with limited financial parental support, young Quaker women 
without dowries, widowed mothers and poor families were 
encouraged to gather together what meager capital they had 
and purchase the cheap and fertile New World lands. The New 
World, and specifically the settlements in New Jersey, 
offered not only financial opportunities but the added 
advantage of living primarily among other Friends. Quakers, 
while hoping to set an example for the rest of the world, 
believed that excessive contact with non-Quakers was 
polluting. It was a point of stumbling on the long arduous 
road to salvation. In addition, the New Jersey settlements 
offered freedom from "sufferings," Quaker terminology for 
governmental and social persecutions.^'* 

For those who are not otherwise familiar with Quakerism 
in practice it is necessary to provide some background. 
Quakers trace their heritage to a loose group of worshippers 
known as the "Seekers of the Truth," Seekers for short. 
These were the outcasts of the English Puritan Revolution, 
people of extraordinary conviction in search of a Christian 
faith that could successfully wed puritanical spirituality 
with life's realities. Their first leaders were wandering 
preachers who, supported by Oliver Cromwell and the Rump 



^'* Barry Levy, Quakers and the American Family (Oxford: 
Oxford University Press, 1988), 110-119. 



9 

Parliament, attempted to bring the more resistant outer 
fringes of Britain and Wales into the Puritan foldJ^ While 
accommodating themselves to the local population a form of 
ostensively anti-institutional Puritanism was developed. 
Denying the value of the university-trained minister, they 
gradually codified the belief of "the inner spirit." Every 
person was capable of holy communion because each person 
contained a portion of the holy spirit within themselves. 
The spirit either expired or thrived depending upon whether 
one carefully nurtured it. Groups met in sessions of silent 
prayer punctuated with the short exhalations of those moved 
to speak by God or by the sermons of those well accepted as 
being divinely inspired. ^^ With the organizational work of 
a group of influential prophets, most notably, George Fox, 
at the end of the 1650's, this new Christian sect was 
codified.^'' Due to the spasmatic fervor to which they were 
often moved during religious experiences, the group acguired 
the popular name of Quakers, but knew themselves as the 
Society of Friends. 

The Society of Friends, as it developed in the 
seventeenth-century and existed in the eighteenth and 



'^ Ibid, 48. 

^^ Ibid, 49. 

Ibid, 70-71 . The process by which precise doctrine 
was developed was in many cases simply that of Fox spreading 
his own religious and organizational ideas through a great 
body of apostolic letters addressed to individual groups of 
Quakers . 



10 

nineteenth-centuries, was extraordinarily structured and 
organized. Thus, contrary to the individualistic nature of 
its beliefs, it was itself institutional. As stated before, 
the Society played an intimate role in most facets of a 
member's life. Each member belonged to a meeting composed of 
his Quaker neighbors. Geography was important as the 
distance one could be expected to travel to meeting was 
limited, generally fewer than fifteen miles. This distance 
shrunk in winter and could also be affected by major 
geographic boundaries such as rivers. The Society of Friends 
functioned on a system of geographically related 
hierarchical meetings. A single yearly meeting oversaw all 
Friends that lived within the territory overseen by its 
subordinate quarterly meetings. The geographic domain of the 
Philadelphia Yearly Meeting is clearly shown in Figure 3, an 
1838 map of the Philadelphia Orthodox Yearly Meeting. The 
number of New Jersey meetings (Fig. 4) belonging to it has 
fluxuated across the years. The yearly meeting oversaw 
several quarterly meetings each of which was responsible for 
Quakers living under the care of any of the several monthly 
meetings over which each quarterly had oversight. Each 
monthly meeting, likewise, had oversight of the preparative 
meetings which were held with in the region of which the 
monthly had care. 



11 



A MAP 

or TMt 

IELFHIA\EARIY MEETING 

1838. 




Philadelphia Yearly Meeting (O). 1838 . 



Fig. 3, "A Map of The Philadelphia Yearly Meeting, 1838" 
Friends Historical Library, Swarthmore College. 



12 




Fig. 4, "Map of Friends Meetings," 1936, Friends Historical 
Library, Swarthmore College 



13 

All meetings for worship were under the care of a ^ 
preparative meeting. The preparative meeting was the lowest 
unit in the Quaker system that provided for the conducting 
of the Society's business. The local meeting monitored the ^ 
Quaker's life, correcting his missteps as they became 
apparent. This, along with the everyday business of property 
and school oversight were the basic responsibilities of the 
preparative meeting. The title "preparative" derives from 
the responsibility of the meeting to bring forward its 
serious problems and concerns to a monthly meeting of 
Friends. ^^ In New Jersey, the monthly meeting oversaw four 
or five preparative meetings. Although in practice it is the 
preparative meeting that has the most direct impact on the 
lives of its members, it was the monthly meeting which 
assumed official responsibility for the care of its members. 
It was the monthly that authorized marriages, that granted 
permission for removals, and maintained discipline. Except 
in special circumstances only the monthly meeting could 
disown an errant Friend.''^ Two or three monthlies were 
overseen by a quarterly meeting which was in turn overseen 
by the yearly meeting of Friends. The quarterly meeting was 
attended by appointed representatives of all of its member 
monthlies. It was responsible for establishing or dissolving 



Salem Quarter, iv 

19 



Salew Quarter, iv. and Susan Forbes. "As Many 
Candles Lighted: The New Garden Monthly Meeting 1716-1774' 
(Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1972), 9-12. 



14 

any of the meetings under its care.^° The yearly meeting 
was the ultimate source of all doctrinal determinations and 
was in the hierarchy the highest of the meetings. Each of 
the many yearly meetings of Friends was independent. It was 
part of their duty to communicate with other yearly 
meetings. Although each was completely autonomous, they 
usually, at least nominally, acknowledged the greater 
influence of the London Yearly. ^^ 

Several things should be noted regarding the mechanics 
of the Society. The process of the organization of the 
Society of Friends was still in progress during the earliest 
portions of the time frame which this paper covers. Every 
meeting can not be assumed to have conducted its business in 
exactly the same fashion. In particular this refers to the 
women's meeting. The practice of holding separate monthly 
men's and women's meetings was actively encouraged by George 
Fox but had only just become common at the date of the 
settlement of Quaker New Jersey. ^^ Their universal 
acceptance should not be assumed at an early date. There are 
also several other types of meetings that have not 
heretofore been discussed. For example, before the 
establishment of a yearly meeting for the New 
Jersey/Pennsylvania area, there were "general meetings" and 



^° Salem Quarter, iii 

^^ Ibid, iii. 

22 Pomfret, 217-218. 



15 
biyearly meetings at both Salem and Burlington. Little Egg 
Harbor is also said to have been the site of another short 
lived "general" meeting. Essentially these were the 
precursors of the yearly although Salem's meeting continued 
even after the date of the yearly' s establishment. 

Meeting House Design, American and English 

Usually, groups celebrate their houses of worship. The 

great mosques of Islam, the Gothic cathedrals of Europe, and 

the temples of the Ancients are all fitting examples. The 

Greeks, if only my thologically , asserted that the immortals 

periodically were resident in their edifices. The imposing 

windswept ruins at Bassae, Delphi and Paestum can almost 

convince one that the myths were fact. As much monuments to 

the rulers and peoples that built them as to the Gods they 

honor, religious buildings were normally a civilization's 

grandest buildings. The Quaker, however, had no Church. 

"Dare not use, much less adore, a piece of 
wood or stone, an image of silver of gold; nor yet 
allow of that Jewish, or rather Pagan pomp in 
worship, practiced by others, as if Christ's 
worship were of this world, though his kingdom be 
of the other . "^^ 

These were the words of William Penn . The meeting house 

was simply a building. To the Quaker the word Church 

referred to a religion, to a faith. George Fox and other 



23 



William Penn, No Cross, No Crown, A Discourse 
Showing the Nature and Discipline of the Holy Cross of 
Christ (Philadelphia: Friends Bookstore, 1845), 53. 



16 

members of Protestant sects called Anglican and Catholic 

houses of worship steeplehouses . No building of this earth 

was a Church. ^^ 

Quakers despised the religious establishment. John 

Talbot, the first rector of St. Mary's Church in Burlington, 

New Jersey, used to make missionary visits out into the 

countryside, that is, until his horse died. "Ye Quakers 

recorded that this was judgement upon me."^^ Plainness, an 

aversion to ostentation, was also a part of Quaker doctrine. 

Abstinence from excess silenced undue pride. 

Jesus "came not to consecrate a way to the 
eternal rest through gold, silver, ribbons, laces, 
paints, perfumes, costly clothes, curious trims, 
exact dresses, rich jewels, pleasant recreations, 
plays, treats, balls, masques, revels, romances, 
love-songs, and the past times of the world: no, 
no, but by forsaking all such entertainments, yea, 
and sometimes more lawful enjoyments too; and 
cheerfully undergoing the loss of all on one hand, 
and the reproach, ignominy, and cruel persecution 
of ungodly men on the other. "^^ 

But the issue of plainness is one that is often 

overstated. The Quaker was no ascetic. While they avoided 

vanity, they did not deny the few comforts that the 



^^ J. A. Simpson and E.S.C. Weire, editors. The Oxford 
English Dictionary, second edition. Vol. XVI (Oxford: 
Clarendon Press, 1989), 616. 

^^ John T. Farris, Old Churches and Meeting Houses in 
and Around Philadelphia (Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott 
Company, 1926), 17. 

2^ Penn, 63. 



17 

eighteenth-century could provide. ^^ They also did not 
always deny the wealthy more luxury; provided that the 
wealth had been achieved in an honorable fashion, it 
represented the fruits of a man's labor and, provided that 
he did not display it in an ostentatious manner, he was 
entitled to the rewards of his work. In keeping, most / "^ 
meeting houses were simple but well built. Superfluous 
architectural adornment was avoided in meeting house design -^ 
but basic decorative details that were often part and parcel 
of the carpenter's and mason's craft, like carved moldings 
and brick string courses, are commonplace. The Quaker's 
adherence to plainness demanded that he abstain from ^ 
ostentation, but in spite of his famed buttonless clothing, 
it did not require him to participate in affected austerity. 

During the first twenty-five years of Quakerism, the 
quarter century which directly preceded the founding of 
Salem and Burlington, only a small handful of English 
meeting houses were constructed as such from the ground up. 
With the single anomaly of the larger urban meeting house at 
Hertford (1570), they were all rural, cottage-like 
buildings. Quakerism was still very much an illegal practice 



^^ Jack D. Marietta, "The Growth of Quaker Self 
Conciousness in Pennsylvania, 1720-48," essay in Seeking the 
Light, Essays in Quaker History in Honor of Edwin B. 
Bronner, eds . J. William Frost and John M. Moore (Haverford: 
Pendle Hill Publications, 1986), 98-99. This statement 
should be somewhat tempered by stating that by the end of 
the eighteenth-century excessive wealth was looked upon with 
considerable suspicion by many Quakers. Plainess became both 
the symbol and tool of Quaker group unity. 



18 

in England at the time the first settlers left Britain for 
West Jersey. Most English meetings were either held in 
private homes or in second hand structures reconfigured for 
Quaker use. English Quakers would not be legally free to 
construct their own meeting houses until the 1689 Act of 
Toleration . ^^ Before that date, meeting houses of any type 
were prone to forfeiture, a situation hardly conducive to an 
active building program. Another possible reason sometimes 
given for the failure of seventeenth-century Friends to 
build numerous and substantial meeting houses is that some 
still hoped for eventual "comprehension" within the national 
Church. ^^ Whatever the reason, English precedent was 
limited . 

English buildings have highly individualistic 
exteriors. Their facades usually reflect the manner in which 
their interior components have been arranged. Commonly, 
there are three basic internal divisions, an entrance hall, 
a large meeting room and a small meeting room. Symmetry 
played no part in interior configuration. The typical 
English meeting house (see Figs. 5a and 5b) is entered 
through a single doorway. The entrance hall served to 
insulate the meeting rooms from noise and temperature 



^^ Hubert Lidbetter, The Friends Meeting House (York: 
William Sessions Limited, second edition, 1979), 5-6. 

^^ J.O. Tarren, "Some Quaker Meeting Houses in North 
Yorkshire," (Thesis, School of Architecture, King's College, 
University of Durham, 1955), 5. 



19 
The Typical English Meeting House, Eighteenth Century 




Fig. 5a, Photo Amersham Meeting House. Taken from Hubert 
Lidbetter, The Friends Meeting House. 



Fig. 5b, Plan, Amersham, original portion, 1685, expanded 
for women's meetings, 1785. Taken from Hubert 
Lidbetter, The Friends Meeting House. 



20 
fluctuations. It also provided a gathering place for Quakers 
entering and leaving services. The large meeting room was 
used for worship. Women entered from the entrance hall by 
one doorway and men by another; each sat on their own side 
of the room, separated by a center aisle. ^° Both sexes sat 
facing several rows of long benches mounted on risers 
against the opposite wall. On this seat sat the meetings 
leaders, its elders, clerk, ministers and visiting 
dignitaries. Some meeting houses also contained upper 
gallery seating, usually reserved for the youth. When 
worship concluded and the business meeting was to begin the 
women rose from their seats and left the room to reconvene 
for their business meeting in the small meeting room. The 
small meeting room could be located adjoining the main 
meeting room, in a loft space above all or part of the main 
meeting room or in entirely different part of the building. 
Often large shuttered partitions divided the meeting house 
space. The partition was placed between the small and large 
meeting rooms and would only be raised or opened to unify 
the space for large gatherings on special occasions. Seating 
on opposite sides of the partition was never oriented in the 



■^° In Quakerism's earliest days, seating within the 
meeting was not separated by gender. Men and women sat 
together. The move to separate them was undertaken as a 
means to spread the acceptance of the monthly women's 
business meeting. In England, seating men and women on 
opposite sides of the meeting room seems to have been 
adopted as the general rule by 1574, two years before the 
founding of Salem. Levy, 78. 



21 
same direction completely eliminating the possibility of 
uniting the meeting. As women were always expected to sit in 
the same space as the men during worship and then exit to 
their own room when business was to be conducted the ratio 
between the sizes of the large and small meeting rooms was 
usually close to two to one.^^ Asymmetry was the universal 
rule in the design of early English Quaker meeting houses 
and these buildings, which set the future precedent for 
English meeting houses, are significantly different from 
nearly all New Jersey examples. 

Today, if one examines the meeting houses that still 
stand in New Jersey and Pennsylvania, an opinion could 
quickly be drawn that with few exceptions Quakers followed a 
fairly homogenous architectural design program in the 
construction of these buildings. The majority of surviving 
Delaware Valley meeting houses are fairly similar (Figs. 6a 
and 6b). Rural Pennsylvania meetings often are built of "^ 
stone while, typically. New Jersey and Philadelphia examples 
are constructed of brick. Normally, they have two levels of 
fenestration, representing the first level of meeting space 
and the loft or gallery. The main facade is not located on a 
gable end. Rather, twin doorways, each covered by a small 
pedimental roof, are found on at least one of the long sides 
of the building. In the most generic of the many subtle 



^^ David M. Butler, "Quaker Meeting Houses in America 
and England," Quaker History, 79 (1990): 98-100. 



22 



The Typical Delaware Valley Meeting House, Eighteenth- 
Century 




Fig. 6a, Chesterfield Meeting House, N.J. T. Chalkey Matlack 
Collection, Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 



I 



I 



I 



( III sii i;i II I n 

I l;ll NPS Ml II IN( .III. MM 



Fig. 5b, Plan, Chesterfield Meeting House, redrawn from 
Historic American Building Survey by Chiarappa, 
"The first and the best sort...". 



23 

variants, the design of the main facade includes ten 
windows, one on both sides of each of the two doors and six 
on the upper level. The appearance is generally one of a 
double hall and parlor house. Each of the doors on the main 
facade leads into the meeting space. At the root of its 
design, the Delaware Valley meeting house is symmetrical. ' 

Although over the years many have had utilitarian 
additions and alterations, essentially the New Jersey 
meeting house is a rectangular mass with a unified interior 
space. The interior is divided in half, from floor to 
ceiling, by a partition. To the left of the partition sit 
male Friends, to the right sit the women. The partition is 
only closed to separate the two business meetings, men's and 
women's. Its mechanism works in one of two ways. In some 
meetings, especially earlier ones, the wooden structure is 
composed of a group of shutters and doors mounted within a 
frame work. With all of the shutters and doors open the 
building's entire interior is unified. In the second method 
the partition consists of two large panels which rest on top 
of one another, effectively creating a center wall. The 
upper half of the screen can, by means of a winch, be raised 
through a slit in the ceiling into the attic space while the 
lower half slips through the floor into the cellar. ^^ The 



^^ This second type is most likely a nineteenth-century 
innovation. Several meeting houses have had their partition 
removed after separate women's business meetings were 
abandoned in the twentieth-century. 



24 
ratio between the two halves, unlike that demonstrated by 
English examples, is an equal one to one. The facing or 5l.^'"*-'>'; 
minister's bench is built along the rear wall opposite from 
the two main entrances, while seating for the main body 
consists of individual benches arranged in rows and 
separated by a single aisle leading to the door. Another 
aisle runs lengthwise down the building in between the 
minister's bench and the main seating. Usually at each end 
of this aisle is another doorway. In some buildings doorways 
exist behind the minister's bench; these will be discussed 
later. Buildings which once housed a meeting of monthly size 
or larger usually also contain a gallery. ^^ The gallery, in 
most instances, runs along front and side walls of the 
building. Contemporary accounts refer to the gallery as 
seating for youths. Gallery benches like the minister's were 
mounted on stepped risers. For the most part the buildings y-ftj^^ 
are symmetrical around a center axis defined by the 
partition. A few lack galleries, a few have three levels of 
fenestration and a few are without even a second level, but 
overall it is apparent that nearly all followed a similar 
model in their design. 

The "typical" attributes described above refer to a 
plan that became common in the 1760's and which is expressed 
by the majority of existing New Jersey examples. There were 



^^ In some works, the minister's or facing bench is 
also referred to as "the gallery." In this paper, to avoid 
confusion, the term will not be used in this manner. 



25 

earlier forms and there have been later. Although American 
meeting house design has not been static throughout its 
approximately three hundred year history, meeting house 
design does remain fairly uniform within definable periods 
of time. While the seventeenth-century was primarily a 
period of experimentation, a form was arrived at in its 
closing years that became dominant throughout the first half 
of the eighteenth-century. The doubled design that became 
universal in the second half of the eighteenth-century 
remained popular into the twentieth. The nineteenth-century 
also saw the introduction of modified and scaled down 
versions of this plan and the twentieth saw the introduction 
of the architect-designed meeting house. This paper will 
examine this evolution of form (Fig. 7) with the idea of 
providing an historical and morphological framework for the 
surviving New Jersey meeting houses. 

Meeting house design, in the Delaware Valley, and in 
particular New Jersey as the oldest regional Quaker 
settlement, is the result of an evolution, a process that 
took place largely on American shores. The development of 
the large, prominent meeting house was a function of the 
economic and social success that immigrant English Quakers 
found in the Delaware Valley. It has been suggested that the 
programmatic differences in spatial configuration of 
American and English meeting houses has its roots in the 
overall acceptance of the importance of the women's 



Fig. 7, The Evolution of the New Jersey Friends Meeting 
House, Seventeenth, Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth 
Centuries 






siiiiKP 



u 



a. The Early or Primitive Meeting House, post 1676, 
dominant, 1676-1700 



26 




■^^-■^v^^^l^ 




^^"" -.^''^^ipli^^l 



J"-^^ 



b. The Bank Meeting House Type, post 1702 dominant 1702-1770 




.^ 



— ^'N MI.. 



c. A Doubled Meeting House Type, Single Story, post 1780 





d. The Doubled Meeting House Type, post 1760, dominant 
1770-1827 



27 
meeting.^'' English Quakers, apparently, were slow to adopt 
the separate meeting in theory and even slower to actually 
implement it. George Fox himself was primarily responsible 
for the introduction of the women's meeting. ^^ He believed 
that women, more effectively than men, could control 
household discipline. A separate meeting empowered the women 
to act in certain capacities outside of direct male control. 
It created a forum within which "modest" women could speak 
openly and ensured that feminine insight played an active 
role in policy. The responsibilities of the women's meeting 
included visiting the sick, care of orphans, caring for 
indigent Friends, disciplining women and most importantly, 
nearly all control over marriage. ^^ It was this last power 
that brought resentment from men who were forced not only to 
submit themselves and their choice of a bride-to-be before 
the women's meeting for investigation and approval, but were 
physically required to supplicate themselves before the 
meeting twice, once at the presentation of the intention to 
marry and once to hear the women's decision. This resentment 
considerably slowed the adoption of the practice. As it was. 



^^ Butler, "Quaker Meeting Houses in America...," 100- 
104. 

^^ Margaret Hope Bacon, "A Widening Path: Women in 
Philadelphia Yearly Meeting Move Toward Equality, 1681- 
1929," in Quakers in the Delaware Valley, ed . John M. Moore 
(Haverford: Friends Historical Association, 1981), 174-175., 
and Levy, 78-79. 

^^ Bacon, 174. 



28 
even after the general adoption of the woinen's meeting, it 
was the males who made the primary policy decisions. ^^ As 
part of the process of introducing monthly meetings to the 
Quaker populous, George Fox travelled to the New World in 
1671 and reported favorably that women's meetings were 
already established in Boston and elsewhere. In New Jersey, 
the date of the establishment of women's meetings at Salem 
and Burlington was only little later than contiguous to that 
of settlement. In England, the London Yearly Meeting was 
still debating the subject as late as 1744 and did not 
establish a women's yearly meeting until 1784 and only after 
considerable pressure was exerted by Americans . "^^ 

Obviously, the variation in the accommodation of the 
women's meeting between English and American meetings can be 
pointed to as a factor behind the differences in internal 
proportioning and arrangement between British and American 
structures. It would seem that American meeting houses more 
clearly manifest the Foxian vision of sexual equality. ^^ 
The truth is probably somewhat more restrained. First, 
George Fox acknowledged the importance of female viewpoint, v 
not equality. Second, in spite of later debate, women's 
meetings were generally established by 1675, the year of the 



^^ Levy, 77-79 



103. 



■"" Bacon, 180. 

^^ Butler, "Quaker Meeting Houses in America...," 102- 



29 

Byllynge purchase, explaining why they were introduced at 
the conception of West Jersey meetings. ^° American Quakers 
do seem to have more readily adopted the concept of the 
women's meeting, but not radically so. Interior 
configuration was affected by the emergence of the women's 
meeting but it was equally the result of a process of 
experimentation that will be shown to have had its origin in 
Philadelphia and Burlington in the 1680's. The configuration 
of English meeting houses is uniquely suited to and 
obviously derived from worshipping in renovated and 
makeshift structures. While persecutions always made British 
Quakers feel they lived in someone else's land, American 
Quakers developed a new building type to serve as the focal 
point of what they hoped would be, and for a short time 
were, Quaker towns, villages and communities. Delaware 
Valley Quakers had the opportunity to develop a practical, 
coherent solution to the problem of meeting house design, an 
opportunity that English Quakers did not have.^^ 



"^^ Levy, 80 



Lidbetter, 5. 



Chapter II: The Establishment of Accepted Form 

A Period of Experimentation and the Resulting Dominant 
Design Pattern 

Settlers in Burlington and Salem faced similar 
conditions. They met in makeshift shelters and in the 
private homes of prominent settlers. While persecution had 
been the cause of similar situations in the homeland, 
unpre judgicially rough circumstances were behind the 
primitive conditions in this portion of the New World. It 
has been stated that the first Quaker meetings at Burlington 
were held in tents formed out of the sails of the ship, 
Kent.''^ While questionable in the specifics, this level of 
early accommodation is probably not far from the truth. 
Thomas Budd, one of the most prominent of the first 
Burlington settlers, described the circumstances as "many 
Exercises, tryalls and hardships, being forced with our weak 
wives and Children to Lodge under trees until we could raise 
up a few huttes together for shelter, being exposed to hard 
winter weather, savages, beasts and wild Natives. "^'^ 



'^'^ Ellis L. Derry's Old and Historic Churches of New 
Jersey (Union City: Wm . H. Wise & Co . , 1979) is one work 
that relates this story (p. 144). Pomfret's scholarly and 
much more reliable work, The Province of West New Jersey 
1 609-1 702 , states that a tent was erected to serve as a 
community center and place of worship but neither states the 
source of the tent's material nor his source for this 
information (p. 106, 217). 

^^ Pomfret, 106: Quoting "Samuel Jennings and Thomas 
Budd to London Friends, 1685," 103. 

30 



31 
Burlington's monthly meeting was first held at John 
Woolston's house. ^^ The earliest recorded place of meeting 
at Salem was the log home of Samuel and Ann Nicholson.'*^ In 
1681, the Nicholson's gave their home and sixteen 
surrounding acres to the Salem Meeting making the small 
building the first structure specifically designated as a 
Friend's meeting house in the Delaware Valley.*^ 

A few first hand accounts and a bevy of second-hand 
ones point to the extensive utilization of log architecture 
throughout southern New Jersey. Log architecture was a 
prominent form in the first growth of Delaware Valley 
building. It was simple to build, suited to available 
materials and was typically replaced as soon as wealth 
permitted. It is probable that the Nicholson's gift of their 
home to the Salem Monthly Meeting was based as much on their 
desire to move into a more hospitable and more prestigious 
brick structure as it was representative of their duty to 
God and generosity toward their neighbors. In either case, 
soon after the date of 1581 structures begin to be built 
specifically to function as meeting houses. Most references 
describe these first meeting houses as being of 
comparatively primitive construction, either crude frame 



^^ Pomfret, 218. 

'*^ Pomfret, 218, and Derry, 97 

46 



Salem Quarter, 212 



32 

buildings sheathed in cedar shakes or log structures .^^ The 
time lag between the first dates of settlement and the 
construction of meeting houses approached a decade. The 
meeting house was important to these early settlers, but 
less so than the dwelling house. The home meant survival and 
while the population was still minimal, most meetings could 
be accommodated in the house. Meetings in the home were, 
after all, to what English Quakers were accustom. 
Conseguently , and in spite of the role that the meeting 
played in the life of every Friend, homes were erected first 
and only considerably later, meeting houses. Eventually, as 
the meeting size grew past what could be accommodated in a 
seventeenth century home, the need for meeting houses was 
answered in one of two fashions. Small and isolated 
communities constructed modest structures completely 
utilitarian in nature and exceedingly basic in construction. 
The larger centers of the young settlements began to build 
more substantial and permanent structures to service the 
needs of thier growing communities. 

No early examples of the small, primitive meetings 



'^~' The only primary source account of a log meeting 
house structure is the late eighteenth-century journal 
reference of Ephraim Tomlinson, who notes such a building 
existing near the site of the present day Amy's Mount 
meeting house. "On the 20th day of 6th mo. 1771, I was at 
the marriage of my son-in-law, John Gardiner, at the log 
meeting-house, hard by Julytown." Quoted by T. Chalkey 
Matlack in his typescript "Notes on Quaker Meeting Houses," 
Friends Historical Library, Swarthmore College, vol. 1: 149. 
Other references, while numerous, all seem to date to the 
nineteenth-century and can not be confirmed. 



33 
survive. During the seventeenth century buildings of this 
type were erected at Newton (1587), Evesham (1698), 
Greenwich (1685) and Chesterfield (1593). No specific 
primary visual or written evidence of the design of these 
buildings survives. In all likelihood, they closely 
resembled several meeting houses which although slightly 
later in date, were built in similarly isolated and 
diminutive communities. Several images of this type of 
meeting house survive, including a photo of the Maurice 
River Meeting House (1800, Fig. 8) and a sketch of the 
Sommer's Point Meeting House (1785, Fig. 9). Both were small 
frame structures, entered by central double doorway located 
symmetrically between two widows. These small buildings 
almost certainly contained only a single interior space. 
Simple and inexpensive, this most basic of designs persisted 
wherever small populations coincided with meager financial 
reserves . 

The history of the small meeting house (Fig. 10) 
constructed in 1709 in what is today Tuckerton, Burlington 
County, New Jersey, then known as Little Egg Harbor, 
demonstrates well the factors which were behind their design 
and construction. The man who donated the land and saw to 
its erection was Edward Andrews, one of the first settlers 
of Little Egg Harbor and although wayward when young, none 
the less Quaker. The Tuckerton Meeting House, demolished in 




Fig. 8 

Maurice River Meeting House 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection, 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 




Fig. 9 

Sommer's Point Meeting House 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection, 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



35 







^Ai :>'^ 




Fig. 10 

Tuckerton Meeting House 

T Chalkey Matlack Collection, ^ 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



^8 According to Matlack "this is a drawing made by J. 
Henrv Ba^Uett of Tuckerton after a faint photo taken prioi 
to 1862 Photo was taken at the request of Beulah Pharo . 
(Notebooks Friends Historical Library, Swarthmore College 



36 

1863/^ is one of the earliest Delaware Valley meeting 
houses for which a reliable image, in the form of a drawing, 
made from a now lost original photograph. It was a small 
crudely constructed shelter. The main body of the meeting 
house was a single, open space used for meetings for worship 
and the men's business meeting. The women's business meeting 
was held in a small addition attached to one end of the 
building. This arrangement paralleled typical English 
meeting house construction. The design of the building was 
not, however, the simple result of a newly immigrated 
English Quaker following the tradition of his home land. The 
similarity was, in fact, the direct result of the geographic 
location of Edward Andrews' farm. 

Edward's father, Samuel Andrews and his wife, Mary, 
maintained a plantation in Mansfield Township, New Jersey. 
They were, however, not a part of the recent Quaker 
immigration. Samuel and Mary had first made their home in 
Oyster Bay, Long Island. Edward was born there and meeting 
records indicate that he frequently returned to visit. 
Quaker missionaries, long before settlers arrived in New 
Jersey, traveled from England to New England and made 
significant numbers of converts there. Samuel and Mary were 
a part of this Quaker community. Mary's father is known to 
have been a prominent Quaker and in fact donated the land on 



^^ Leah Blackman, History of Little Egg Harbor Township 
from its First Settlement to the Present Time (Tucker ton: 
The Great John Mathis Foundation, Inc., 1963 reprint), 174. 



37 
which Samuel would build the Long Island meeting house at 
which both he and Mary would worship. Samuel moved his 
family to Mansfield Township, New Jersey sometime between 
1577 and 1586. The obvious reasons for moving were both the 
rich farm land and the desire to be a part of the new, more 
strictly Quaker, Delaware Valley Community. They had eight 
children and Edward, in age, fell somewhere in the middle. 
As New England "convinced" Quakers, neither Edward nor his 
parents had likely ever seen an English meeting house. ^° 

When Edward came of age, he was forced to make a 
decision about his future. As a younger male child he would 
not inherit his father's farm and by the time he was to set 
out on his own, all of the prime farm land in Burlington 
County and the surrounding region was long since claimed. 
Edward was also something of a black sheep, living a wild 
life for a Quaker, but somehow avoiding being disowned. He 
fiddled, danced and was married by a Monmouth County Justice 
of the Peace rather than in Quaker fashion, a disownable 
offense in itself. ^^ For all of the above reasons, in 1599, 
Edward purchased 500 acres in what was then a lonely 
wilderness, the Upper New Jersey outer coastal plain. ^^ 
Edward's was choice land for the region. He cleared his farm 



^° Ibid, 249-251 . 

^^ Ibid, 251 : extract from records in the Monmouth 
County Clerk's Office in Freehold. 

^2 Ibid, 256. 



38 

and settled down to become one of the area's first settlers. 

Edward's property, unlike his father's, had in the greater 

scale of time, only recently emerged from the ocean floor 

and as a result was both sandy and less fertile (Fig. 

11).^^ Compounded with this was his isolation. Edward could 

not easily bring his crops to market. The distance between 

Little Egg Harbor and the settled lands along the Delaware 

was a considerable barrier. There were no roads, except a 

few Indian paths, through the New Jersey Pine Barrens. So in 

all likelihood, Edward sold little and relied on his farm 

for nearly everything. 

His life would soon change. His own description is most 

appropriate : 

"Then the Lord was pleased to again call on 
me in the twenty seventh year of my life; and thus 
he began his great work in me. At first he tried 
me with a small thing. Being now removed into a 
remote place from friends, and no meetings of 
Friends within forty or fifty miles of my 
dwelling, and the people of the neighborhood being 
a vain and loose people in the 4th month, 1704, as 
I was working in my field alone, in a solitary 
condition, I saw a bone of a man's leg, which I 
had often handled before, and flung it to and fro; 
but now when I saw it, this arose in my mind; that 
if I was dead, I would not like to have my bones 
thrown up and down in the open field; and if so, I 
ought to do as I would be done by, in that case; I 
also thought it would be well of me to bury that 
bone, because it was my fellow-creature's bone. I 
had some reasoning in myself concerning it; but at 
length concluded it was not much labor to do it, 



^^ Roger Thomas Trindell, "Historical Geography of 
Southern New Jersey as Related to its Colonial Ports," 
(Dissertation, Louisiana State University, 1966), 15. 



39 




COASTAL PLAIN 

PROVINCES 

NEW JERSEY 



Fig. 11, Map of New Jersey showing Inner and Outer Coastal 
Plains Taken from Trindell, Historical Geography of 
Southern New Jersey. . . 



40 

and so went and buried it; after which I returned 
to my work again with the answer of peace in my 
mind."^' 

Interpreting this as a calling from God, he gathered 

together all of his neighbors who would come and began 

holding meetings. He developed a following and on the second 

day of the fourth month of 1709, the Chesterfield Monthly 

Meeting of Friends was informed that Friends at Little Egg 

Harbor had raised a meeting house on Edward Andrews' 

land.^^ It was a modest structure; the area's residents, 

like Edward, could afford nothing else. The building was 

constructed with a pine frame and sheathed with cedar 

shakes. The more preferable brick was too expensive. Clay 

was absent from the area's soil and would have had to have 

been purchased fifty miles away and then carted to the site. 

While it was an exceedingly simple structure it was probably 

as substantial as were any of the private homes in the area. 

By the third month of 1714/15, the meeting had grown in 

strength. The monthly fifty mile trek to Chesterfield was a 

burden. Edward applied to the Chesterfield Monthly to 

establish a monthly meeting at Little Egg Harbor. ^^ It was 



^^ Edward Andrews, "A Journal of the Life and Travels 
of Edward Andrews," copied by Caleb Rapier, and recopied by 
Francis Knowles, 1730. Philadelphia Yearly Meeting 
Manuscripts, Friends Historical Library, Swarthmore College, 

^^ Minutes of the Chesterfield Monthly Meeting, 2nd 
day, 4th month 1709. Friends Historical Library, Swarthmore 
College. 

^^ Ibid, 3rd day, first month 1714/5. 



41 
for the monthly meeting, most likely, that the women's 
addition was added to the structure. 

The design of the small meeting house was restricted by 
the dire economic circumstances and the evolution of the 
building's use. Edward Andrews built a meeting house in 
Little Egg Harbor, similar to English meeting houses perhaps 
because the conditions experienced in Little Egg Harbor were 
similar to those experienced by Quakers in the small, rural, 
English villages from which most came. Seventeenth-century 
English Quakers were both socially and economically 
distressed. Most English Quakers leased rather than owned 
their own farm land and most farmed land that was only 
marginally fertile. ^^ Their poverty was increased by the 
endless series of fines and imprisonments to which the 
English government submitted religious dissenters. English 
Friends had little money to dedicate to the construction of 
meeting houses, buildings could always be confiscated.^ 

Two buildings which survive today are usually equated 
with this early and most primitive group of meeting houses. 
These are the Seaville (Fig. 12 and 13) and Barnegat (Fig. 
14 and 15) Meeting Houses. They are not, however, what they 
at first appear. The Seaville Meeting House has been dated 



" Levy, 25-52. 

^^ Levy, 95, and 112-115, and Lidbetter, 5. 



42 




Fig. 12 

Seaville Meeting House 

Author's Photo 



Fig. 13 

Plan, 

Seaville Meeting House 











/ 


^N^ /- 





43 




Fig. 14 

Barnaget Meeting House 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



Fig. 15 
Plan, 
Barnaget 
Meeting House 




44 



by some to as early as 1727.^^ The building, a small, one 



story, one room, clapboard meeting house with exposed 
interior beams has an extremely primitive, almost 
seventeenth-century air about it. In fact, it is known to 
have been erected in 1763 and to be the surviving eastern 
half of a larger structure which in design belonged to an 
altogether later tradition. On the other hand, the Barnagat 
Meeting House, with the exception of a small frontal 
restroom addition and the covered porch, remains very much 
similar to its original appearance. The building, however, 
probably does not date to 1770. Meeting records indicate 
that a replacement for an original eighteenth-century 
building was constructed in the mid nineteenth-century . ^° 

Typically, in large towns, the construction of a 
substantial meeting house preceded even the erection of the 
court house or other civic buildings. The primary building 
campaigns were undertaken in Burlington and Philadelphia. 
Burlington seems to have been the first to begin both 
planning and construction. A most unique building, the 



^^ The meeting house at Seaville has sometimes been 
said to have been in use at an earlier date further up the 
coast and to have been moved in the eighteenth-century, 
Lidbetter, Friends Meeting, 31-32, The Salem quarterly 
meeting's history quotes the meeting records which state 
that the meeting house was constructed at its present site 
in 1763 and not 1727. Salem Quarter, 264. 

^° Minutes of the Little Egg Harbor Monthly Meeting, 
12th day, 10th month 1848. Friends Historical Library, 
Swarthmore College. 



45 




Fig. 16 

Burlington Meeting House 
Print Collection, Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania 



46 







Fig. 17 

Plan, Burlington Meeting House 

Print Collection, 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



47 
hexagonal Burlington Meeting House (Fig. 15) was begun in 
1683. In Northern Europe, the octagonal centralized church 
plan was a well known alternative for Protestant Church 
designers who wished their buildings to remain as distinct 
as possible from plans based on Catholic liturgacy.^^ What 
it represented in the relative wilderness of seventeenth- 
century New Jersey was a new start. So unconventional a 
design choice was symbolic of a society that saw itself at 
an important juncture, a point of beginning. The New World 
offered an unprecedented religious freedom. Believing 
themselves on the verge of creating the heavenly society on 
earth that they sought, a young religion inherently if not 
conciously understood the need for a new building type and 
began experimenting with design. 

Rational and democratic in its symmetry, the hexagonal 
plan theoretically would seem both symbolically and 
functionally suited to a faith without paid preachers and 
that believed in the importance of individual communion with 
God. Unfortunately, as constructed, it did not prove to be a 
practical design. The Burlington Meeting House apparently 
failed logistically on two counts; it was too cold and too 
small. The building's plan included both an extremely high 
ceiling and a hexagonal windowed cupola, two attributes 
which would have made the building more comfortable in 



^^ Anthony Garvan, "The Protestant Plain Style Before 
1630," Journal of Architectural Historians 9:3 (October 
1950) 6. 



48 
summer but unbearably cold in winter. Compounding the 
problem was the fact that the building apparently lacked any 
means of heating, and size, not initially a problem, soon 
became one. In addition to weekly, monthly and quarterly 
meetings, the Burlington Meeting House was soon also 
required to house the large general assembly which would 
grow to become the Philadelphia Yearly Meeting. ^^ As a 
result of both problems, the building was extended in 1696 
with what the Burlington Meeting called a "winter meeting 
house," in fact, a rectangular addition attached to the rear 
of the original structure. ^^ A plan (Fig. 17) of the 
meeting house in this later configuration exists and seems 
to indicate that at this time the interior arrangement of 
space was based on or paralleled English precedent. The plan 
shows both the original portion of the building and the 
rectangular addition separated from each other by a screen 
partition. The rectangular addition contained the hearth the 
hexagonal structure lacked. As the heavily attended meetings 
the building was required to house were, for ease of travel, 
held only in temperate months, the partition could remain 
closed during the winter season limiting the space the 
fireplace was required to heat. 



^^ Arthur J. Mekeel, "The Founding Years, 1681-1789," 
in Friends in the Delaware Valley, ed . John M. Moore 
(Haverford: Friends Historical Association, 1981), 17. 

^^ Minutes of the Burlington Monthly Meeting, 4th day, 
third month 1596, Friends Historical Library, Swarthmore 
College . 



49 
In Philadelphia, Burlington's sister city, there were 
three early attempts at creating meeting houses as 
significant civic edifices. These were the Center Square 
Meeting House (1685, Fig. 18), the second Bank Meeting House 
(1702, Fig. 19) and the Great Meeting House at Second and 
High (Market) Streets (1695, rebuilt 1755, Fig. 20).^"^ 
William Penn's influence had fast made the city the center 
of Quaker culture in the New World. Penn himself probably 
dictated the placement and definitely sponsored the 
construction of the Center Square Meeting House. ^^ Work on 
the structure began in 1685. The life span of the building 
was extremely short and the materials from it were reused in 
finishing the construction of the second Bank Meeting 
House. ^^ The location was probably the cause of the 
building's early demise. The meeting house was centrally 
placed in term's of Penn's long term plan for Philadelphia 
but was isolated from the city as it had developed to that 
point. Philadelphia was still very much a small town 
clustered along the banks of the Delaware. Little is known 
about the Center Square Meeting House's design or 



^'^ Edwin B. Bronner, "The Center Square Meetinghouse 
and the other Early Meetinghouses of Philadelphia," The 
Bulletin of Friends Historical Association, 44:2 (1955): 67- 
73. 



66 



Ibid, 69 
Ibid, 72 




Fig. 18 

Center Square Meeting House 

Taken from Watson, Annals. . . 



Fig. 19 

Second Bank Meeting House 

Taken from Watson, Annals. 




51 
appearance. The only reported image is one that appears in 
Watson's Annuals of Philadelphia, a book first published in 
1830 over a hundred years after the building's demolition. 
Its short life span and its less than enthusiastic reception 
make it unlikely that this building in any way functioned as 
a prototype for the buildings that followed it. 

The Bank Meeting House was the city's second meeting -'-^ 
house. ^^ Located on the Delaware, more proximal to the 
city's population, it was originally a frame structure 
(1685), but was soon rebuilt in brick (1702).^^ In its 
masonry incarnation, this meeting house had an important 
design legacy. The overall exterior configuration is best 
described as being similar to that of a squat, gambrel roof 
center hall house. John Watson tells us that the Bank 
Meeting House, instead of the "board partition" common in 
meeting houses of Watson's time, used a simple curtain to 
separate men's and women's meetings. ^^ The first Delaware 
Valley reference to a "board partition" is regarding one 



^^ Ibid, 57-68. The first meeting house constructed in 
1583 was a crude temporary building known as the boarded 
meeting house and located at what is today the west side of 
Front Street near Sansom. 

^^ John Fanning Watson, Annals of Philadelphia, Being A 
Collection of Memoirs, Anecdotes, & Incidents Of The City 
And Its Inhabitants From The Days Of The Pilgrim Founders 
(Philadelphia: Uriah Hunt, 1830), 355. 

^^ Ibid, 335. 



52 
installed in the Salem Meeting House in 1585.^° Watson ~^ 
notes that the Bank Meeting House's entrances were 
segregated by sex as well. Men entered the building from the 
"front" (east) door while women entered a door on the 
southern facade.''^ This practice of designating entrances 
by gender will later find a much stronger architectural 
expression. This building's legacy to Delaware Valley 
Meeting House design was a block like, rectangular form 
externally. If the hexagonal Burlington Meeting House 
represented a northern European Protestant conception, 
developed remotely from the Italian High Renaissance 
fixation with the theological and intellectual perfection of 
the centrally planned Church, then the Bank Meeting House 
represented the first phase of the general integration of 
classical High Renaissance symmetry, in the manner of 
Palladio and Indigo Jones, into the Anglo-colonial builder's 
art . 

The third prominent Philadelphia structure, was the so- 
called Great Meeting House. Located at Second and High 
(Market) Street, it was the Pennsylvania home of the 
Philadelphia Yearly Meeting. ^^ The surviving images of the 



^° Minutes of the Salem Monthly Meeting, 26th day 8th 
month, 1685. Friends Historical Library, Swarthmore College, 

^^ Ibid. 

^^ In reality, the Great Meeting House was never large 
enough, in either its first or second incarnation, to house 
the entire yearly meeting. Up until 1760, when held in 
Philadelphia, one half of the gatherants, either the men's 



53 
Great Meeting House would seem to support the assumption 
that the design criteria exemplified by the Bank Meeting 
House were continued at High Street and then by means of the 
Philadelphia Yearly Meeting, diseminated to the entire 
region. The most famous images, however, depict the building 
as it existed after a 1755 rebuilding. John Watson described 
the building in its first incarnation as "surmounted on the 
centre of its four angled roof by a raised frame of glass 
work, so constructed as to pass light down into the meeting 
below, after the manner of the Burlington meeting house. "^^ 
It is not surprising that the twin homes of the Philadelphia 
Yearly Meeting both under near simultaneous construction 
less than 30 miles apart, would be erected to similar 
designs. Three views of the first Great Meeting House are 
known, all are rough early eighteenth century images found 
in river front views of Philadelphia and none of the three 
show anything more than the building's double pitched roof 
and cupola. ""^ (Fig. 21) Likely, the building resembled the 



or the women's portion of the yearly meeting would retire to 
the Bank Street Meeting House. After 1750, the men held 
their portion of the yearly meeting at the Pine Street 
Meeting House. The Great meeting house was used by the women 
until 1804. Bacon, "A Widening Path...," 181. 

^^ Watson, 300. 

'''^ George Wood, "The Prospect of Philadelphia from 
Wickacove," 1735. (The Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur 
Museum), Peter Cooper, "The South East Prospect of the City 
of Philadelphia," oil on canvas, (Library Company of 
Philadelphia), and George Heap, "An East Prospect of the 
City of Philadelphia," 1754, (Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania) . 



54 




Fig. 20 

Great Meeting House, 

Philadelphia 

Taken from Watson, Annals. 



55 




Fig. 21, Meeting house at Second and High Streets from 
George Heap, "An East Prospect of the City of Philadelphia 
taken by George Heap under the Direction of Nicholas Skull, 
Surveyor General of the Province of Pennsylvania" engraving, 
1754, Historical Society of Pennsylvania 

Fig. 22 

Wilmington Meeting House 
Taken from Wilson, 
Philadelphia Quakers. . . 




56 
second Wilmington Meeting House (1748, Fig. 22) more than 
its Burlington counterpart. 

The similarity of the Burlington and first Great 
Meeting Houses raises the guestion of whether or not the 
simultaneous construction of the two meeting houses was part 
of a programatic development plan sponsored by the colonies' 
proprietors. Penn, after all, had large stakes in both 
efforts. The Encyclopedia of Philadelphia, a twentieth- 
century publication, asserts that the Great Meeting House's 
master carpenter was Thomas Jagues, a native of ^ 
Leicestershire, England, a Huguenot and a professional 
builder. ^^ Jagues arrived in Philadelphia the same year in 
which Penn donated the land to the meeting, 1583. The 
Encyclopedia states that "Quaker authorities agree that he 
brought with him the plans for the meeting house which was 
erected at the southwest corner of Second and Market 
streets."''^ Was it possible that the plan for the 
Burlington Meeting House was also generated in England? The 
Burlington Meeting House was constructed by an English 
trained master builder. But Francis Collins, one of the 
initial purchasers of Burlington lands, was also one of 
their earliest and most respected settlers. He emigrated to 
this country considerably before he recieved the commision 



^^ Joseph Jackson, Encyclopedia of Philadelphia Vol. 
Ill (Harrisburg: National Historical Association, 1932), 
785-786. 

^^ Ibid, 785. 



57 
from the Burlington Monthly Meeting. Collins had begun his 
career in England. He is known to have had rare experience 
in meeting house design as he was responsible for 
renovations made to the English Stepney Meeting House. ^^ In 
New Jersey, he was responsible for the construction of the 
first Burlington Court House, the Burlington Market and the 
Copany Meeting House as well as the hexagonal meeting 
house. ^^ While the two meeting houses are both undoubtably 
the product of English trained craftsmen, its doubtful that 
there was any programatic conection between the two efforts. 
The two designs were however both similar attempts to create 
a "Rationalized Protestant" centralized plan. Both were born 
of English/European ancestory and both were apparently more 
acceptable in theory than in practice. 

The Bank Meeting House, however, represents a much more 
"American" solution to the problem, just as intellectually 
rational but in a straight forward way more practical and 
far less complex. It was simply the most basic way to 
inclose the interior program which had through practice 
evolved as the most amenable to the Quaker system of 
worship. It was both closer to the Quaker doctrines of 
plainness and in terms of ease of construction much more 



^^ Michael Chiarappa, "'The first and best sort:' 
Quakerism, brick artisanry, and the vernacular aesthetics of 
eighteenth-century West New Jersey pattern brickwork" 
(Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1992), 277. 

^^ Pomfret, 219; Derry, 145, and Chiarappa, 277. 



58 

agreeable to the colonial mason whose primary experience was 
in domestic building. 

Most New Jersey meeting houses constructed in the first 
three quarters of the eighteenth century generally reflect 
the Bank Meeting House in form. Some of the largest and most 
prestigious of New Jersey's structures were nearly identical 
in design. Perhaps the most similar was the large brick 
meeting house constructed in Haddonfield (1760, Fig. 23) but 
other examples were erected at Trenton (1739, Fig. 24), 
Upper Springfield (1727, Fig. 25), Copany or Old Springfield 
(1775, Fig. 25), East Branch (also known as Robin's Meeting, 
1816, Fig. 27), Amy's Mount (1775, Fig. 28) and Greenwich 
(1779, Figs. 29 and 30). Meeting houses constructed at 
Woodbury (1715, Figs. 31 and 32), Bordentown (1740, Fig. 33 
and 34) and Alloways Creek (1756, Fig. 35 and 36) also 
belong to the same design family, but have since been 
modified. Somewhat taller and narrower these last meeting 
houses were the result of the Bank Meeting House formula 
applied to buildings of a more modestly dimensioned 
footprint. The proportions of these last structures are such 
that it is unlikely that they were originally fitted with an 
upper seating gallery, a device which could only have been 
applied in an awkward fashion. These buildings may have 
instead contained an upper floor. While Delaware Valley 
meeting house design continues in a new direction during the 
second half of the eighteenth century, the Bank Meeting 



59 




Fig. 23 

Haddonfield Meeting House 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



Fig. 24 

Trenton Meeting House 
Collection of Trenton 
Society of Friends 





Fig. 25 

Upper Springfield Meeting House 
T. Chalkey Matlack Collection, 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



Fig. 26 

Old Springfield Meeting House 

Author's Photo 




61 

second half of the eighteenth century, the Bank Meeting 
House pattern pattern does continue, as the 1816 East Branch 
Meeting House demonstrates, to be for quite some time, a 
much less popular but viable alternative to more current 
trends . 



Double Meeting Houses and a Quaker Revival 

The most significant development in the architecture of 
the Delaware Valley Friend's meeting house was the exterior 
expression of the meetings' gender based division. Twin 




Fig. 27 

East Branch Meeting House 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection, 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



62 




Fig. 28 

Amy's Mount Meeting House 

Author's Photo 




Fig. 29 

Greenwich Meeting House 

Author's Photo 



Fig. 30 

Plan, 

Greenwich Meeting House 




r 



/ \ 




Fig. 31 

Woodbury Meeting House 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



n 



n. 



Fig. 32 

Plan, 

Woodbury Meeting House 

Chiarappa, "The first and best sort 



I 



I 



1716 sect ion 




'ig. 33 

?ordentown Meeting House 

mthor's Photo 



Fig. 34 

Plan, 

Bordentown Meeting House 



Meeting House BuiU. 1741) 
Reconfigured As Office Space. 191^9 



rjo' 




66 



Fig. 35 

Alloway's Creek Meeting House 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



Fig. 36 

Plan, 

Alloway's Creek Meeting House 

Drawn by Carl Lounsbury, 

Salem County Historical Society 



|S^^t^ — m^^fy ^^ ^m^t^ — ^jmmmm — tas«^^>-_to k^^ 




e 



-fa 



.<y, ^K^^^^>,^W>J »,^^y^ ^ 



wd^ m, 



•''•^ if-^ 




_n-rLrLr==i 



67 
hooded entries located on the main facade became common in 
meeting houses built after 1760 and dominant by the end of 
the eighteenth-century. The use of dual main entry ways is 
not limited solely to American Quakers but can be found 
associated with the meeting houses of several Protestant 
sects, most notablly the Presbyterians. The earliest New 
Jersey Quaker structures known for certain to have had them 
incorporated into their original designs were the Hardwick 
(1763, demolished 1885 and known only from a crude sketch. 
Fig. 37), Quakertown (1754, Fi g- 3 -8 T and Mount Laurel Meeting 
Houses (also known as Evesham, 1760, Fig. 39). 

Conceptually, the Quakertown and Hardwick Meeting 
Houses were the simplest of these three buildings, primarily 
each was two, small, one room meeting houses built side by 
side, separated by a moveable interior partition. Both were 
probably also similar in configuration to the meeting house 
at Seaville (see Figs. 12 and 13) before its 19th century 
subtractive alterations. These two northern New Jersey 
meeting houses were the ancestors of a whole group of single 
story meeting houses, including Easton (1811, Fig. 40) 
Cropwell (1809, Figs. 41 and 42) and a doubled meeting house 
by addition, Rancocas (original portion 1772, date of 
addition unknown, see Figs. Ill, 112 and 113). They also set 
a precident for the more common two and three story, double 
meeting houses. 



V (Vio. C^ c-y s-VxBVAivA .5 l%fcZ. ^t^Up^ rta p... |!\'^ 




Fig. 37 

Hardwick Meeting House 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 

Fig. 38 

Quakertown Meeting House 

Author's Photo 





Fig. 39 

Mount Laurel Meeting House 

Author's Photo 



Fig. 40 

Easton Meeting House 

Author' s Photo 



'V... 







^OCTiEl 



'Sli 


|g^^^ 




:— tM 




3 


IS 

\ 




■—■;■• -^ 




70 



Fig. 41 

Cropwell Meeting House 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



Fig. 42 

Plan, 

Cropwell Meeting House 




71 
The Mount Laurel or Evesham Meeting House was the 
earliest two story double meeting house known to have been 
built in New Jersey. While crude in the proportions of its 
interior woodwork and in its rough exterior stonework, in 
plan this fieldstone building demonstrates a well thought 
out and effective method by which the concept of dual main 
entries was incorporated into the uniformly accepted Bank 
Meeting House plan. While earlier and later "doubled forms" 
are, with the exception of Hardwick, in door and window 
placement exactly that, two meeting houses built side by 
side, the meeting at Mount Laurel alters the arrangement of 
the main facade providing a more architecturally unified and 
traditionally proportioned structure. The meeting house at 
Mount Laurel was conceived as a single structure with two 
main doorways rather than as two similarly orientated 
connected buildings each with its own entrance. The proof of 
this comes in the fenestration of the main facade. A 
"doubled plan" would call for redundant twin windows on the 
first level between the two doorways. Mount Laurel, instead, 
substitutes a single window. Similarly on the upper level of 
fenestration are three akwardly placed windows, instead of 
the even four or six, common to most double plan meeting 
houses. Visually neither half of the building could stand 
alone as a symmetrical entity. It should be noted that 
although a much simpler building, the Hardwick Meeting 
House, with its three instead of four windows on its main 



72 
facade, was the product of similar design. 

It was the true "doubled plan" and not the Mount Laurel 
configuration which would dominate late eighteenth and early 
nineteenth-century Delaware Valley meeting house design. One 
of the earliest, preceeded only by the 1772 meeting house in 
Salem, surviving examples of a New Jersey meeting house that 
displayed the true two story culmination of the doubling of 
form, is that of the Chesterfield Meeting, otherwise known 
as Crosswicks (Fig. 5a). The town of Crosswicks was founded 
by Quakers in 1677 and fast became a local center and its 
Quaker meeting, one of the more influential.^^ Its first 
frame meeting house was constructed in 1593 and was soon 
replaced, in 1706, with a brick structure more congruous 
with the meeting's prominence .^° The Crosswicks Meeting 
continued to grow and, in 1753, the meeting was forced to 
enlarge the building. ^^ In 1773, Chesterfield, this time in 
order to accomadate the Quaterly Meeting, was faced again 
with the question of whether to enlarge or completely 
replace their meeting house. Undoubtably a meeting house 
twice expanded would have in plan and appearance been an 
exceedingly awkward structure. Instead, the decision was 
made to construct an entirely new meeting house from the 



'^ Derry, 1 04. 

^° Chesterfield Monthly, 4th day, 10th mo. 1692; 7th 
day, 11th mo. 1692, and 2nd day, third month 1706. 

^^ Ibid., 7th day, 6th month 1753. 



73 
ground up. 

The process by which the Chesterfield Meeting adopted 
the then newly introduced "doubled" plan is enlightening. 
The meeting sent a committee to study the Buckingham (P. A.) 
Meeting House, the earliest known Delaware Valley meeting 
house to have been constructed from the start as a true 
doubled plan meeting house. ^^ The Society of Friends may 
have been a conservative group but its very structure, its 
interconnected system of meetings, guaranteed the fast 
spread of those new ideas that were adopted. Through yearly 
meeting delegates, the eighteenth-century Quaker was 
annually in contact with every other member of his Society 
regardless of whether he left his home town or even if he 
had never even sent or received a letter. The group was 
bound even more tightly by the longstanding tradition of the 
travelling Quaker ministers. Regularly visited by Friends 
from both nearby and distant quarterly and yearly meetings, 
all Quakers were in regular contact with members of other 

i. • 84 

meetings . 

The committee appointed to study Buckingham's new 
Meeting House, composed of Stacy Potts, Benjamin Clark, 
James Odell and Abraham Skrim, responded positively, stating 



^^ Ibid., 7th day, 10th month 1773. 

^^ Ibid., 4th day, 3rd month 1773. 

^^ Pomfret, 216 and Tolles, Quakers and the Atlantic 
Culture, 32-33. 



74 
that such a meeting house could be constructed for £750.®^ 
Soon after, Chesterfield's new meeting house was under 
construction.^^ The building was one of the very largest 
and most impressive New Jersey meeting houses yet 
constructed. By implication, the Chesterfield minutes tell 
us that in 1773 Buckingham's plan was considered both 
advantageous as well as acceptable but not yet universal. 
This doubled meeting house design was basic, so simple that 
it would not have required a committee visitation to study 
it if it had already reached the point of commonplace 
acceptance. And yet it had reached a level of acceptance 
great enough for a committee to recommend its adoption as 
the chief architectural embodiment of an influential group 
of Friends. 

The Chesterfield Meeting House would be followed by 
prominent examples at Salem (1772, Fig. 43), Upper Greenwich 
(Mickelton, 1789, Figs. 44 and 45), Pilesgrove (Woodstown, 
1785, Fig. 46), Plainfield (1788, Fig. 47) and Burlington 
(1784, Fig. 48). 

While it is doubtful that we will ever be able to point 
to one meeting house in particular and say that it was the 
original source of the "doubled" design, it is at least 
fairly certain that this form did not develop in 



^^ Chesterfield Monthly, 5th day, 8th month 1773 
^^ Ibid., 7th day, 10th month 1773. 



75 




Fig. 43 

Salem Meeting House 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 




Fig. 44 

Upper Greenwich Meeting House 

Author' s Photo 



Fig. 45 

Plan, 

Upper Greenwich Meeting House 



\- 




Fig. 46 

Pilesgrove Meeting House 

Author's Photo 

Fig. 47 

Plainfield Meeting House 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 





FTg . 4 6 

Pilesgrove Meeting House 

Author's Photo 

Fig. 47 

Plainfield Meeting House 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



^r^0.^ 




Fig. 48 

Burlington Meeting House 

Author's Photo 



78 



if^^^^^W 




79 

Philadelphia. Good visual records, while lacking for many 

rural examples, survive for Philadelphia meeting houses. It 

seems that the "doubled" form in any of its incarnations was -^ 

not introduced to Philadelphia's Quakers until after it had 

already achieved popularity in the surrounding Quaker 

communities. The doubled plan probably owed its popularity 

to its functionality as the most obvious and practical 

method of extending an already existing meeting house. As 

wealthy and prominent Philadelphia meetings more often than 

not replaced rather than enlarged their houses, it is the 

outlying rural communities in which we should expect and in 

fact find large numbers of meeting houses enlarged in such 

fashion. The very earliest of which may have been the 

Nicholson's log house in Salem, New Jersey, the building 

with which New Jersey meeting house history began. 

"The 25th Day of the eight mo. 1685. It was agreed 
by the monthly meeting and by Benieme Acton that 
the said Benieme shall build a room twenty feet in 
length and in breadth equal with the meeting house 
in Salem Joyning and ranging equal in hithe-v^ith 
the said meeting house joyned to ye east end of 
the old meeting house with two windows in the said 
roome where the said Benieme shall be directed and 
a pertition betwixt the new Room and the old with 
two long doors containing the breadth of the house -^ 
with a chimney at ye east end of the house and the 
said Benimeme is to make it a good framed house 
and to lay sufficent joysts or beams for the floor 
of the upper room and Benieme is to make a little 
door in aforesaid pertition and too clapboard the 
walls and shingle the roofe, and the said Benimeme 
is to finish the house by the first of the second 
month next . . .^^ 



Salem Monthly, 26th day, eighth month 1685 



80 

30th day of the nineth mo. 1685... it was thought 
fit by Friends that the partition in the east end 
of the old meetinghouse be made three foot high 
with shutters to run up and down according to the 
directions of John Thompson and Christopher 
White. ^^ 

The admittedly confusing quotations above describe a 

late seventeenth-century building which seems very much 

similar to a type of meeting house which does not become 

common until seventy-five years later. The Salem Meeting 

minutes describe a building with two long doors, and 

interiorly, with two chambers, "in length and breadth equal" 

separated by a shuttered partition. In spite of its 

importance as the seat of one of the New World's most 

influential meetings and its role as the first meeting house 

in the Delaware Valley, its unlikely that the Salem 

structure played any direct role as a precedent for later 

design. No other similar building has been documented in the 

Delaware Valley earlier than 1750. A date by which the Salem 

building was little more than termite fodder. The solution 

to the question of meeting house design arrived at by the 

Salem Meeting was ignored in favor of the route taken by 

Philadelphia. Rather the doubled design was probably a 

syncronist but unrelated development, one that was already 

known in the meeting houses of other protestant sects and 

which allowed older, outgrown meeting houses to be expanded 

into buildings which reflected modern design rather than 



Ibid., 30th day, nineth month 1585 



81 

otherwise facing expensive total demolition or continued 

existence as agglutinated white elephants. 

Aside from practicality of design, there were other ^ 

factors working within the Society of Friends that may have 

sped the spread of the "double" plan. In the extreme 

southern portion of New Jersey, a few miles from the city of 

Salem, on the fringes of the town known today as Hancock's 

Bridge is the Alloway's Creek Meeting House. Originally 

constructed in 1755 and expanded in 1784 the building is a 

typical example of the Bank Street planned meeting house 

converted to doubled form (see Fig. 35).^^ 

"At a preparative meeting held 8 mo 26th 1784.... 
This meeting agrees, that in regard to a mode of 
addition of our meetinghouse that the managers 
pull down the west end and an addition sufficient 
to sguare each room and raise the new part as high 
as the old and as much higher as may be thought 
necessary and the old part likenwist . "^° 

The Salem Quarterly Meeting, that to which the 

Alloway's Creek Preparative Meeting belonged, was in a 

period of reorganization at the time of the Alloway's Creek 

Meeting House expansion. Several new preparative and monthly 

meetings were created, a few new meeting houses were 

constructed and a few were enlarged. The alterations at the 

site of the Alloway's Creek Meeting House were made to 



"^ Ibid., 26th of the 4th mon . 1756. 

^° Minutes of the Alloways Creek Preparative Meeting, 
26th day, 8th month 1784, Friends Historical Library, 
Swarthmore College. 



82 

accommodate a new monthly meeting. ^^ The Salem Quarterly 
created the new meeting to service the two port towns of 
Greenwich and Alloway's Creek. Greenwich, the larger 
settlement, was an official port of entry, complete with its 
own customs house and burgeoning trade. It had enlarged its 
meeting house (see Figs. 61 and 62) in advance of the 
quarterly's decision and therefore was the lone site of the 
new monthly until Alloway's Creek managed to complete their 
alterations . ^^ 

What did the creation of the new monthly meeting mean? 
Obviously, it, artif actually , produced the alteration in 
size and form of both the Greenwich and Alloway's Creek 
Meeting Houses. For members of the meeting at Alloway's 
Creek, it also meant less cold winter hours spent traveling 
to monthly. But, more importantly, the new monthly gave 
Friends at Alloway's Creek, and Greenwich as well, greater 
control self control. The monthly meeting, more so than any 
other meeting, and in fact more so than civic government, 
was the basic unit that governed the life of its members. ^"^ 
The tighter regionalization of control had a twofold effect. 
First, on the local level. Friends had more say in their 
Church and, consequently, in how they lived their own lives. 
Because they had their own monthly meeting they also had 



^^ Salem Monthly, 18th day, 11th month 1783. 

92 Ibid. 

9^ Salem Quater, iii-iv and Forbes, 9-10. 



83 
more influence in the quarterly and yearly meetings 
themselves. But secondly, and perhaps more importantly, the 
move also tightened the control of the Society of Friends 
over the individual. By reducing the number of members in a 
monthly meeting, it more easily allowed that body to keep 
close tabs on its membership, increasing conformity. This 
last fact suggests that the creation of the Greenwich 
Monthly Meeting may be linked to a well researched and 
documented Quaker revival movement, one that gripped the 
Society at perhaps not so coincidentally the same time that 
double plan meeting houses become dominant. ^^ 

During most of the eighteenth-century, the Philadelphia 
Yearly Meeting believed itself under siege. Its problems 
became openly apparent in the 1720's. For the first time 
since settlement. Friends in Pennsylvania and New Jersey 
found themselves numerically in the minority. Beginning in 
1717, Pennsylvania was witness to a wave of immigration that 
brought thousands of Palatine Germans and Scotch Irish to 
the New Colony. ^^ The Quaker regions of New Jersey saw 
immigration from many different directions, overflow from 



^'^ The following short synopsis of the events leading 
up to and including the eighteenth-century Quaker Revival 
period is directly derived from Arthur J. Mekeel, "The 
Founding Years..."; Jack Marietta, "The Growth of Quaker 
Self Consciousness ..." and Marietta, The Reformation of 
American Quakerism, 1748-1783 (Philadelphia: University of 
Pennsylvania Press, 1984). 

^^ Marietta, "The Growth of...," 80. 



84 
Pennsylvania and the northern colonies as well as migration 
from other regions within the colony. It is certainly an 
understatement to say that the Friends were not happy with 
their new found neighbors. In a broadside printed by the 
Philadelphia Monthly Meeting in 1732 their feelings were 
clear, "remarkable and grievous is the Depravity of Manners 
so observable in our streets; sorrowful enough is it to see 
the great Encrease of Prof phaneness and Lewdness .. .much 
owing to the importation of great Numbers of the Vicious and 
scandalous refuse of Other countries . "^^ 

The Society, however, feared more than just immigrant 
immorality, they feared for their very survival. The threat 
was very real, forces were conspiring against them and, in 
Pennsylvania, they were led by Sir William Keith, deputy 
Governor of the Province from 1717 to 1726.^^ Long a 
trusted friend of wealthy Quaker politicians, Keith took 
advantage of both a severe economic depression that struck 
in 1722 and the new immigrant masses to advance his career. 
With a minority of elite Quakers holding most of the wealth 
and much of the political power in the colony, Keith 
introduced a popular political insurrection and attempted to 
place himself as its head.^^ In order to increase his own 
popularity, Keith fanned the flames of discontent among the 



^^ Ibid, 81 

^' Ibid. 

^^ Ibid, 8 2 



85 

new immigrants and targeted their wrath against the upper 
class, a decidedly Quaker upper class. Keith was eventually 
driven from power by a populist Quaker, David Lloyd, but not 
before planting a sizable number of his supporters into 
political offices in both the Philadelphia city and county 
governments, and not before establishing substantial anti- 
Quaker sentiment among the immigrant populous. ^^ In New 
Jersey, these events had a profound influence all along the 
Philadelphia cultural watershed, and obviously throughout 
the entire dominion of the Philadelphia Yearly Meeting. 
Anti-Quaker sentiment had an even longer history on the 
eastern side of the Delaware than it did in the colony of 
Pennsylvania. Quakerism in New Jersey had been, in the 
seventeenth-century, beleaguered by a union of Royalists 
apposed to West Jersey self rule and, in the late 
seventeenth and early eighteenth-centuries, by 
representatives of the Anglican Church, most notably, the 
Reverand John Talbot and George Kieth, a once powerful 
Quaker leader turned Anglican minister. 

While Talbot and Kieth traveled up and down the 
Atlantic Seaboard and often spoke in Philadelphia, they paid 
special attention to New Jersey as its unusual religious 
diversity, compounded with its initial dearth of Anglicans, 
for them made it a true religious wasteland . ^°° Kieth and 



59 Ibid, 83. 

^°° Pomfret, 267 



86 

Talbot would travel from one Quaker meeting to the next 
violently sermonizing on the errors in the Quaker's beliefs. 
In Burlington, Talbot even attempted to disrupt the 
Philadelphia Yearly Meeting, a group he termed "ye great 
Synagogue of ye Quakers. "^°^ The Quaker response was 
threefold. Groups of travelling Quaker ministers followed 
Talbot and Keith from meeting to meeting trying to 
counteract the dissention they were attempting to 
spread. ^°^ Quaker presses throughout the New World attacked 
Kieth directly and finally on a much more localized approach 
individual meetings varied the dates and times at which they 
were held to prevent the attendance of unwanted 
interlopers . ^°^ 

The Anglican assault and populist politics were not the 
only forces threatening Delaware Valley Quaker Society. 
European turmoil spilled over to the New World and brought 
Quaker pacifism to the forefront of Delaware Valley 
politics. Their refusal to participate or aid in military 
actions, either offensive or defensive had been a point of 
conflict between the Society of Friends and the English 
government since Quakerism's formative days. In America, the 
circumstances were no different. The Society of Friends, or 
at least those Quakers who belonged to meetings under the 



^°^ Ibid, 268 
^°2 Ibid, 263 
^°3 Ibid. 



87 
Philadelphia Yearly Meeting, initially had no ideological 
objection to supporting a war through taxation. ^°^ 
Justification for the policy was found in the famous 
Biblical quotation of Jesus in Matthew 22, verse 21 : "Render 
therefore unto Caesar the things that are Caesar's and unto 
God the things that are God's." The predominantly Quaker 
Pennsylvania assembly had demonstrated this interpretation 
of Quaker pacifist doctrine in 1711. Queen Anne had 
requested that Pennsylvania assist in preparing and 
executing a Canadian campaign as part of her war with 
France. The Pennsylvania legislature refused to take part 
but readily agreed to make a financial appropriation for the 
Queen's use. Quaker legislatures would vote funds to support 
conflicts but would play no role in dictating their 
application . ^°^ The policy, held fine for foreign 
engagements but collapsed for obvious reasons when world 
events dictated that Pennsylvania provide for her own 
defense. The Quaker legislature could vote money for defense 
but refused to spend it. This problem first came to a head 
in 1739 when the Assembly refused to support the governor's 
efforts to provide a militia to defend Pennsylvania from a 
perceived Spanish threat. Anti-Quaker politicians fanned the 
flames of discontent and attempted to demonstrate what they 
believed was the inappropriateness of Quakers in Government 



^""^ Marietta, "The Growth of...," 91 
'°^ Ibid. 



and the hypocrisy they believed their policies represented. 
Anti-Quaker sentiment was pervasive J°^ Powerful 
Pennsylvanian ' s , such as Benjamin Franklin, worked openly to 
undermine the Quaker control of Pennsylvania Government . ^°^ 

When hostile Spanish forces failed to materialize, the 
Philadelphia political scene slowly returned to status quo 
but with more widespread underlying anti-Quaker sentiment. 
The situation remained stable for another fifteen years. 
Then, in 1756 the New World rivalry between the French and 
the British became open hostilities. War in the colonies and 
in Pennsylvania itself put the Quaker members of the 
Pennsylvania assembly in a corner from which they could not 
escape. Forced into a difficult position between religion 
and politics, six Quaker assemblymen, followed soon by 
several others, resigned their seats. Suddenly for the first 
time since its creation, Quakers were in the minority on the 
Assembly. ^°^ In fact, most of the remaining Quakers, 
numbering less than one third of the total assembly, would 
be reprimanded by their meetings. ^°^ The popular negative 
opinion of Quakers fostered by the Seven Years War ran 
directly over into the Revolutionary War. Friends were 
considered traitors by rebel and tory alike. 



^°^ Ibid, 98. 
^°^ Ibid, 97-98. 
^°^ Mekeel, 42. 
'°^ Ibid. 



89 

The effect of these turbulent years on the Society of 
Friends was dramatic. Politically, the result was 
unification. Quakers despite their religion were 
economically and socially a diverse group. Previous to the 
tumultuous events of the eighteenth-century they never 
presented a unified political voice. Under exterior forces 
Quakers, rich and poor, farmers and merchants, gradually 
became a single unified force which translated the view 
points of the yearly meeting into political policy. ^^° This 
unified front was more or less forced on Quakers. All 
Quakers were assailed politically for the same reasons and 
therefore all were likely to respond in similar ways. But 
within the Society of Friends and specifically, within the 
Philadelphia Yearly Meeting a deliberate unifying response 
developed that was designed to combat destructive exterior 
forces, but was conceived of and executed from the inside. 

The Society attempted to draw together its members and 
to insulate them from the negative forces of the outside 
world, both by trying to combat the adverse effects of 
contact with outsiders, and by strengthening the sense of 
cohesion within the Friends. Since Quakerism no longer 
actively engaged in recruiting new members, its very 
existence depended upon keeping its own within the fold. 
Increasing worldliness made this increasingly difficult. One 
answer was simply to leave populated areas. This was a 



no 



Marietta, "The Growth of...," 99 



90 
choice often made in the south where increased immigration 
was augmented by the polluting aura of slavery. North 
Carolina, once a major center of Quakerism, saw nearly one 
quarter of its meetings dissolved. Quakers left for the 
frontier. Sometimes whole meetings moved en mass. Ohio and 
later, Indiana were the destinations of choice.^" The area 
overseen by the Philadelphia Yearly, witness to a smaller 
exodus, concentrated upon shoring up their communities. The 
Philadelphia Yearly Meeting, led by a few prominent Quakers, 
undertook the effort directly. The movement seems to have 
begun in 1755 and continued roughly until the end of the 
Revolutionary War, after which tensions between Quakers and 
the previously anti-Quaker factions relaxed."^ Doctrine 
outlined in the form of Queries and Disciplines, was to a 
point never before seen, more clearly codified and 
elaborated . ^^^ Previously, on many moral issues, a variety 
of viewpoints were tolerated within the Society. Over the 
course of the last half of the eighteenth-century strict 
guidelines for Quaker beliefs and behaviors were adopted. 
Deviance was not tolerated."'' In 1755, the strongest 
official statements against military service were issued as 



"^ Thomas D. Hamm, The Transformation of American 
Quakerism Orthodox Friends, 1 800-1907 (Indianapolis, Indiana 
University Press, 1988), 13-14. 

112 Mekeel, 36-38. 

"2 Ibid, 39. 

"'^ Marietta, The Reformation of..., 46-72. 



91 

well the firmest directives demanding the disownment of 
anyone marrying out of the Society. By 1775, all Friends 
were forbidden from owning or in any way being involved in 
the slave trade. "^ 

Beyond simply introducing tight rules, the Society of 
Friends saw to it that the mechanisms for their enforcement 
were strengthened and made more effective. Meetings for 
Ministers and Elders, meetings made up of only the most 
influential Friends which very much controlled the direction 
of the Society, previously held at the yearly meeting were 
introduced as far down the meeting ladder as the 
monthly."^ Disownment numbers rose sharply."^ Disharmony 
with the Society was in no way tolerated and the great 
Quaker school system was increased to provide greater 
insulation against the outside world and to more thoroughly 
indoctrinate the young members of the Society."® 

It is very likely that the introduction and 
proliferation of the doubled plan meeting house is directly 
tied into this eighteenth-century Quaker revival. As a 
functional part of the revival, the role of the women's -^ 
meeting in both the yearly and the lesser meetings was 
increased. The men's meetings paid more interest in the 



Mekeel, 40 and 44. 
Ibid, 38. 



115 
116 

"^ Marietta, The Reformation of..., 67 
"® Ibid, 59. 



92 

women's meeting and the women's meeting began taking 
initiatives on its own."^ While women were not given an 
equal role in the functioning of the Society until the 
twentieth century, their role as the moral backbone of the ■^ 
family and the overseers of marriage was outlined directly 
by George Fox and renewed and appreciated by Revivalist 
Quakers J^° It is a very short step to conceptualize the 
mutually important and separate roles of both sexes in the ^ 
form of the dual main entries of a doubled meeting house. 
When combined with the date of the first known Delaware 
Valley "doubled" meeting house built from start as such, 
1750, five years after the date usually given as the start ^ 
of the revival, the argument that these meeting houses are 
architectural manifestations of the wider social movement is / 
considerably strengthened. The revival's institutionalized 
methods of behavioral control would have favored the 
adoption and spread of a single meeting house plan. 

Also corresponding to this period of revivial is a 
noticable growth in the total numbers of New Jersey meeting 
houses. Considering that this is a period of political 
turmoil and warfare, it would seem an unlikely period to be 
making large capital investments in physical improvements. 

The revival may have effected the rate of New Jersey 
meeting house construction, as well. Michael Chiarappa in 



"^ Bacon, "A Widening Path...," 179 
^20 Ibid, 197-198. 



93 

his doctoral dissertation, "'The First and Best Sort:' 
Quakerism, Brick Artisanry, and the Vernacular Aesthetics of 
Eighteenth-century West Jersey Pattern Brickwork" argues 
that the construction of both West Jersey Quaker meeting '^ 
houses and Quaker dwelling houses were part of a programatic 
expression of Quaker control over the surrounding New Jersey 
cultural and geographic landscape J^^ Chiarappa correlates 
the number of meeting houses and dwelling houses constructed 
and political and demographic stress exerted by an increase 
in the regions non-Quaker population . ^^^ Another 
correlating factor that can not be ignored is the continued 
growth of Quaker population within this region, as is 
demonstrated by approximate figures derived from 
contemporary estimates and census data (Fig. 49).^^^ 
Concequently , both the average size of New Jersey meeting 
houses (Fig. 50) and thier total numbers (Fig. 51) continue 
to increase during the closing years of the eighteenth- 
century . 

The "double" meeting house plan (see Fig. 7d) was 
undeniably the most common choice during the closing years 



^^^ Chiarappa, 264-361 . 

^22 Chiarappa, 340-347. 

^^^ While the growth of the Pennsylvania Quaker 
population slows to a halt after 1750, such was not the case 
in New Jersey. Undeniably, the New Jersey Quaker population 
was dwarfed by the increase that occured amoung the rest of 
the population, but in fact, based on contemporary 
estimates, the New Jersey membership of Society of Friends 
grew throughout the eighteenth-century (Fig. 49). 



94 



25 ,000 _, 



22 ,250-_ 



■9 JXO _ 



Quaker 5 .":0 
Population 




Fig. 49, The Population of New Jersey Quakers by Year, 
1570-1810, compiled from historical estimatesJ^^ 



^^'* "Census of West Jersey, 1699" reprinted in New 
Jersey Archives, First Series, Vol 2, 305, quoting Daniel 
Leeds' "Account of the Inhabitants of West Jersey 1599," 
Almanac, 1701; Wacker, 131, 180 and 183; John Rutherford, 
"Notes on the State of New Jersey in 1785." Proceeding of 
the New Jersey Historical Society, Second Series, 1867, and 
Pomfret, 278. 



95 



80 ,000 
70 ,000 



Estimated 

Square 

Footage 

40 ,000 



50 ,000 _ 



20 ,000 _ 



^0 ,000 




Fig. 50, The estimated total square footage of meeting 
houses in New Jersey by year, from 1670-1810, 



96 



n 



80 



70 



60 



Existing -0 — 

Meeting 

Houses 

40 



30 



20 



10 



o 


1 

o 


o 


o 


1 1 
o 


O 


o 


i 

o 


l\ 


en 


* 


ro 


lO 


r-- 


(T) 




CCi 


UD 


r-- 


r^ 


f\ 


r\ 


I\ 


00 



Fig. 51, The total number of existing meeting houses by 
year, from 1670 — 1810. 



97 
of the eighteenth-century, but it would be an overestimation 
to say that it was the only one. The Bank Meeting House plan 
(see Fig 7b), for meeting houses not required to house 
quarterly meetings or very large congregations, was an 
exceptable alternative, into the nineteenth-century. There 
were also "double" varients (see Fig. 7c). The most common 
of these were the one story, double meeting houses of the 
Hardwick, Quakertown type. This plan, because of its small 
size and traditional appearance, is popular even today, as 
was demonstrated by its selection for one of the youngest 
New Jersey Quaker meeting houses, the present Westfield 
Meeting House. 



Chapter III: Conservatism and Change 

Early Nineteenth-Century Conservatism 

With the end of war and the establishment of the new 
nation, Quakerism's aggressive stance was somewhat relaxed. 
Many Quakers migrated westward to less growth pressured 
communities. Meeting house construction continued at a 
somewhat slowed rate. It is from this period that the most 
detailed account of meeting house design and construction 
survives . 

So far, little has been said about the process by which 
individual meeting houses came to be built. This has 
primarily been due to the lack of regionally specific 
primary source information. Quaker meeting records are 
unusually thorough, but rarely totaly enlightening. The 
minutes of meetings often give the date at which new 
construction was first considered, what the decision was, 
who was to oversee the work, and what the expense was to be. 
They usually do not explain why a new meeting was necessary. 
How the design was arrived at, who did the arriving, or what 
the details of construction were, were rarely discussed in 
any detail. Nor was the relationship of the builder to the 
meeting or what his qualifications for employment were. For 
New Jersey Quakers, besides vague meeting records there are 
no known primary sources for this information; no diaries, 
no contracts and no architect's papers. For Wilmington, 
Delaware, a city located across the Delaware River, only a 

98 



99 

few miles from Salem itself we are more fortunate. 

On October 26, 1815, the Wilmington Preparative Meeting 

began discussion on what was to be done to ease the problem 

of overcrowding at their meeting house. The clerk of 

commission, appointed to examine and deal with the issue, 

was Benjamin Ferris (1780-1867). He was not only one of the 

more influential men belonging to the Philadelphia Yearly 

Meeting but also Delaware's most eminent local 

historian . ^^^ Ferris had the foresight to both visually 

record the old meeting house before its demolition, and to 

record in writing all the proceedings involved in deciding 

to construct an entirely new meeting house, as well as the 

primary events in determining its design and its 

construction . 

"On the 26th of 10th mo. 1815 a concern was 
opened in the Preparative Meeting relative to the 
State of our present meetinghouse, and a number of 
Friends in the course of the discussion of the 
subject having freely expressed their views, it 
clearly appeared, that Friends of this meeting 
were not comfortably accommodated with a meeting 
place, that our meetings on first day morning were 
unsuitably crowded and that some of our 
religiously disposed neighbors were restrained 
from sitting with us when assembled for Divine 
Worship from a fear of incommoding our own 
members. It also appeared that when Friends who 
were travelling on a religious concern desired the 
company of our neighbors at meeting with us and 
proposed a general notification for this purpose, 
that friends who generally undertook to notify in 
such cases were much tried with the view of 



^^^ Benjamin Ferris, "A Sketch of the Proceedings," 
originally written in 1817 and first published in Delaware 
History Xll (1968-1969): 67. 



100 

inviting Persons to a house which was not 
sufficiently large to afford them a Seat."^^^ 

The Wilmington Meeting responded in a most Quakerly 
fashion, they created a committee to examine the problem. 
Committees are called to deal with almost every problem that 
a Quaker meeting faces. While meetings are in the ultimate 
sense quite democratic, at least in theory, their means of 
arriving at decisions collectively is often less than 
effective for complicated decisions. The clerk of a meeting, 
the individual in charge of maintaining the minutes, 
monitors discussion. The inner light will lead the meeting 
toward the best decision, which becomes discernable enough 
during the course of debate that the clerk will be able to 
interpret it and set it down in the minutes. ^^^ Committees 
were more favorable as less voices made it easier to arrive 
at a course of action and limited the input from Quakers 
likely to have contrary view points to those within the 
circles of power. 

Ferris' writings demonstrate the role committees played 
in the design and construction of meeting buildings. The 
Wilmington committee was composed of fifteen men, all 
prominent businessmen who held considerable "weight" within 
their meeting; none were directly connected to building 



^^^ Ibid, 71 . 

^^^ William C. Braithwaite, The Beginnings of Quakerism 

2nd ed. (Cambridge: University Press, 1970 reprint), 306 and 
329. 



101 

industries. The women's meeting had no apparent role. The 

committee's first task was to determine whether it was wiser 

to construct a new building or rather to simply enlarge the 

old. From the beginning, it seems the consensus was in favor 

of entirely new structure. It appeared, 

"evident that to make it [the old meeting house] 
answer the purposes of the Society the cost will 
be nearly equal to the expense of a new one, 
besides subjecting Friends to the necessity of 
Procuring another meeting place while building and 
repairs were in hand."^^^ 

Thomas Spackman, Moses Rea and Jesse Betts were 
appointed by the meeting to estimate the cost of a structure 
75 feet long by 50 feet deep. The measurements were then 
changed to 76 feet by 48 feet, "to divide the house to 
greater advantage." The total bill would come to eleven 
thousand, three hundred and ninety-one dollars. The single 
greatest expense then, as now, was labor. ^^^ 

The ground plan and elevations were devised by William 
Poole, Jacob Alrichs and Benjamin Ferris, himself. ^■^'^ 
Ferris supported himself in cotton manufactory, Alrichs was 
the owner of a machine factory, and William Poole a 
prominent businessman . ^^^ Ferris described the layout as 
follows , 



128 Ferris, 72. 
^2^ Ibid, 71-73 
^3° Ibid, 72. 
^31 Ibid, 69. 



102 

"the Friends appointed to make the Plans & 
Elevations produced one in which was laid down the 
usual outlines of Ground Plan being now produced 
and some time spent in considering its various 
parts the Committee agreed to adopt it, the 
outline being as follows. Minister's Gallery to 
extend across the whole long angle of the house 
west side. One door in each end contiguous to the 
Minister's Gallery. One small window in each end 
between the doors and the Westernmost corner of 
the house. Two other Windows in each end down 
stairs. Six windows in front up stairs, four in 
the rear and three in each end. Two doors and four 
windows in the front down stairs. Four windows in 
the rear down stairs, and two doors between the 
Minister's Galleries. A small building 9 by 15 
behind the house to cover the platform which is 
intended to extend behind the Minister's Gallery. 
One Story high."^-^^ 

The plan was changed before construction began, 

"Minister's Gallery curtailed so as to extend to 
the line under the Youths Gallery it being 12 feet 
from the Northeast and Southwest ends of the 
house. The Benches which are to fill these 
vacancies are to front each other, those on the 
S.W. to front those on the N.E. and vice- 

11 133 

versa. 

"The Doors in the ends of the house to be moved 
one foot to the Eastward and the two end windows 
nearest the East front are to be moved one foot 
toward the West to correspond with the alteration 
now made in the removal of the doors. "^"^^ 

The meeting house that Benjamin Ferris and his 

Wilmington neighbors designed and built was a double plan 

meeting house of exactly the type that had become so 

universal during the last half of the eighteenth-century 

(Fig. 52). As Ferris described the building's arrangement as 



^22 Ibid, 73 

^^^ Ibid. 

^2^ Ibid, 77 



103 

being of the "usual plan," he both recognized that there was 
a dominant code of design and consciously complied with it. 
The extent of the discussion outlined in Ferris' s 
description demonstrates that while there was an accepted, 
"usual" plan, it was up to the committee to decide upon its 
appropriateness and to alter it to fit their meeting's 
specific needs. The general result of the Quaker building 
planning process across the Delaware Valley seems, in fact, 
to have led to an ever increasing conformity. The few 
variations in plan found in the late eighteenth-century 
become limited to slight differences in rear door and window 
placement by the early nineteenth. 

New Jersey meeting houses of this time period, also 
quite typical examples, include those at Moorestown (1802, 
Figs. 53), Newton (Camden, 1801, Fig. 54), Mansfield (1812, 
Figs. 55 and 56), Mullica Hill (Woolwich Meeting, 1808, 
Figs. 57 and 58), and Medford (1814, Fig. 59). As a group 
these meeting houses were among the largest built to that 
date. Meeting houses seem to have become more massive during 
the early years of the nineteenth-century. As well as 
becoming longer and wider, meetings also expanded upward. 
While most meeting houses built circa 1760 or later have 
another level or large attic above the balcony, nineteenth- 
century examples saw an increased enlargement in the scale 
of this space. The room height was increased as well as the 
magnitude of its fenestration. While eighteenth-century 




104 



Fig. 52 

Wilmington Meeting House 

author' s photo 



Fig. 53 

Moorestown Meeting House 

Author's Photo 




105 



" ytaB-J a iJa WI— gJBBqtjj r j ' . kmuumjmiL. u 




Fig. 54 

Newton Meeting House 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 




. 106 



•ig. 55 

lansfield Meeting House 

lUthor's Photo 



Fig. 56 
Plan, 

Mansfield Meeting House 




107 



Fig. 57 

Woolwich Meeting House 

Author's Photo 



Fig. 58 

Plan, 

Woolwich Meeting House 

redrawn from Historic American Building 

Survey by Chiarappa, "The first and the 

best sort ..." 



1 



H 



108 




Fig. 59 

Medford Meeting House 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



109 
buildings would occasionally contain a small light in the 
upper level of each gable end, nineteenth-century examples 
often had full six over six window openings. The total 
effect was to make the buildings seem more block-like and 
huge. But overall, the dominant theme in meeting house 
design during this period was continuity. 

Schisms, Hicksite versus Orthodox and Gurnevite versus 
Wilburite 

The closing years of the eighteenth-century and the 
first of the nineteenth-century were the eye of the storm 
for American Quakerism. While the trauma of the eighteenth- 
century had attacked Quakerism from the outside, the turmoil 
of the nineteenth-century was to come from within and 
consequently would be devastating. The Society of Friends 
believed in unity as both their justification and their 
salvation. As explained above they used conformity as a 
method of holding their society together in the face of 
adversity, but the concept went even deeper than that, it 
was a part of their theology. This is expressed clearly in 
the way Quaker meetings made decisions. They did not take 
votes or follow the direction of the majority but rather the 
clerk of the meeting "sensed" its direction. If the "inner 
light" or will of God guided each good Quaker, then how 
could they have a difference of opinion on important issues 
that faced their church. The only conclusion was that the 



no 

one group was not reading the voice of God correctly. One 
could not tell whether that group could be either the 
minority or the majority and in either case it meant that at 
least some Friends were misdirected . ^^^ During the 
nineteenth-century, the Society of Friends in America was to 
come to not one, but several major doctrinal confrontations 
and each was to tear at the very psyche of the group. 

The history of American Quakerism in the nineteenth- 
century seems to have largely hinged on the personality of 
one man, Elias Hicks (1748-1830), the respected Quaker 
minister from Long Island. Hicks was a fervent speaker 
distraught by the direction in which the Society of Friends 
seemed to be headed. Quakerism, in his view, had drifted 
away from the beliefs that were behind its founding. At the 
center of Hicks' doctrinal debate was the concept of Inner 
Light and its relative importance. Orthodox Quakers, as 
those opposed to Hicks came to be known, were moving 
Quakerism closer to a more conventional Christian 
standpoint. When Hicks claimed that the Inner Light was the 
true guide to salvation, Orthodox Quakers stressed the 
importance of the Bible. When Hicks stated that Jesus was 
only one, albeit very gifted, son of God among many, 
Orthodox Friends ridiculed him and branded him a heretic. 
The revival period of the late eighteenth-century had left 
the Philadelphia Quaker power structure unwilling to 



Braithwaite, 306 and 329. 



Ill 

tolerate any divergent viewpoints. Those Friends who 
controlled most of the power in the Philadelphia Yearly 
Meeting were vehemently opposed to Hicks J^^ The 
disagreement became open conflict at the Philadelphia Yearly 
Meeting of 1827. Unable to gain control of the meeting, 
Hicks, who was in attendance as a visiting Quaker, and his 
followers left the Arch Street Meeting House one night and 
convened their own yearly meeting the next morning. The rest 
of the Philadelphia Yearly Meeting fell in line on one side 
or the other. 

Underneath these issues were others that played just as 
important a role in the events that would eventually lead to 
the division of American Quakerism. These were the issues on 
the surface, underneath were many levels of strife. With 
anti-Quaker sentiment among the non-Quaker populous dying 
down after the American Revolution, Quakers were likely to 
identify themselves as a group a little less. Quakers with 
"weight" tended to be both wealthier and more urbane than 
those who championed the cause of Hicks. Part of the reason 
for Quakerism's drift toward the middle of the spectrum may 
have been caused by the desire of wealthier Friends to fit 
more easily into a PhiladeJphia upper class dominated more 
and more by men of different religious backgrounds. Orthodox 
Friends were often newly rich men who had found their 
fortunes in booming American commercialism. The old monied 

^2^ Hamm, 15-16. 



112 

families, socially threatened by the new bourgeois, often 
formed Hicksite sympathies in response. ^^^ Still another 
primary cause of the conflict was the exclusionary structure 
of the Quaker power system. Positions of power and the 
resulting "weight" they brought were unofficially passed on 
hereditarily. The son of a highly respected Quaker was 
automatically held in high regard himself. The wealthy 
Orthodox Quakers had controlled most positions of power 
within their meetings. The others were disenfranchised and 
knew it. Although most American Quakers and all British 
Friends sided with the Orthodox view point, the situation 
within the Philadelphia Yearly Meeting was clearly 
dif f erent . ^^^ When the separation occurred, most urban 
Friends became Orthodox Quakers, while in the more rural 
surrounding areas Hicksites held the numerical 
superiority . ^^^ When news of the split reached each 
meeting, the usual result was that lines were drawn. The 
more numerous group would retain control of the meeting 
house and meeting funds and oust the others. The events at 
the Salem Meeting House, recorded by a neighbor Harriet Van 
Meter Cone, are typical. Elias Hicks visited the New Jersey 



^^^ J. William Frost, "Years of Crisis and Separation: 
Philadelphia Yearly Meeting, 1790-1860," in Friends in the 
Delaware Valley, ed . John M. Moore (Haverford, PA: Friends 
Historical Association, 1981), 67. 

^^^ In the year 1845, there 71,600 Orthodox Quakers in 
America, there were only 23,000 Hicksite Friends. Hamm, 175. 

^^^ Frost, 78. 



113 
meetings soon after the Separation in 1827. Mrs. Cone 
recalled the events after he spoke. After the excitement and 
opposition of a number of Quakers, the opposition locked the 
gates of the yard to prevent the Hicksite party from holding 
their meeting in the old meeting house. A Hicksite 
blacksmith came in and knocked off the locks, and the 
Hicksites drove in and held their meeting. ^''° Within New 
Jersey, it was usually, but not always, the Orthodox who 
received the short end of the stick. An 1834 count made by 
New Jersey Hicksites stated that there were 2100 Orthodox 
friends in New Jersey and 3896 members of "the other portion 
of the Society." Orthodox numbers were somewhat different, 
2972 "Friends" and "3344" seceders . A probably more reliable 
count taken in 1830 showed that at least within Salem 
itself, there was a two to one ratio, 250 Hicksites to 150 
Orthodox. Animosity between the groups became extreme. ^'^^ 
To the Orthodox, the Hicksites were heretics. Orthodox 
Friends could be censured for even talking to a Hicksite 
Friend. After the London Yearly Meeting officially 
recognized the Orthodox Friends, the followers of Hicks set 
up their own parallel system of meetings including their own 



^^° Salem Quarter, 233. This history also contains the 
account of the eminent English Quaker Thomas Sillitoe, who 
travelled the Salem quarter in the aftermath of the 
separation and who was openly offended by the "violent" 
actions and "determination to worry Friends out of their 
property in their meeting houses." 

^"^^ Ibid, 114-116 and 120-121. 



114 

Philadelphia Yearly Meeting. 

The architectural outcome of the situation is easy to 
surmise. Meeting house numbers within southern New Jersey 
nearly doubled. New meeting houses had to be built to 
accommodate those evicted from the old ones. Nearly all of 
the meeting houses constructed in the first years following 
the split were comparatively modest structures, as the group 
that held the old meeting also held all of the funds. In the 
past, Quakers had relied on contributions from neighboring 
meetings to help fund new meeting houses, New Jersey Quakers 
were now faced with a constituency of only about half its 
former size, and consequently only half the wealth. 

The Chesterfield Orthodox Meeting House is typical of 
many built in the wake of the separation (Fig. 50). 
Constructed of brick but relatively small in scale, this 
meeting house was raised in a prosperous community. Built in 
1854, giving its meeting time with which to establish a 
building fund, its design draws from both early and late 
eighteenth-century meeting house precedents. In overall 
massing and arrangement, the building is very similar to 
small meeting houses of the early eighteenth-century. The 
Chesterfield Meeting includes in its design the double entry 
that became prevalent in the second half of the eighteenth- 
century. While the doubled form of these late eighteenth and 
early nineteenth-century meeting houses had grown from the 
expansion of smaller older meeting houses and from American 



115 




Fig. 60 

Chesterfield Orthodox Meeting House 

Author's Photo 



116 




Fig. 61 
Greenwich Hicksite Meeting 
House, T. Chalkey Matlack 
Collection, Historical Society 
of Pennsylvania 



Fig. 62 

Plan, 

Greenwich Hicksite Meeting House 




117 
Quaker meeting ritual, the continuation of the form in this 
smaller meeting is probably as much a function of tradition 
and a conservative nature as it was a practical 
solution to the smaller meetings' requirements. Meeting 
houses built in Greenwich (1857, Figs. 61 and 62) and Salem 
(1837, Figs. 63 and 64), share the same solution to the 
problem of the necessary smaller meeting house proportions. 
Yet, they are different from the one constructed at 
Chesterfield. These two meeting houses, like their larger 
cousins, include fenestration between the dual entries; 
Chesterfield, awkwardly, lacks it. 

Meeting houses built in the wake of the schism did not 
automatically include dual entries in their design. 
Surviving meeting houses from Mansfield (1828, Fig. 65), 
Newton (also known as Camden, 1837, Fig. 66), and Woodstown 
(c.1828. Fig. 67), are examples of buildings designed with 
only one primary entry. Structures of this type were not 
uncommon. Usually of frame construction and a date very 
close to that of 1827, these buildings probably represent 
the first crop of post-Schism meeting houses, constructed 
with limited funds as quickly as possible. Most likely 
intended only as temporary measures, they lacked the more 
elaborate detailing of their brick counterparts. 

Between 1830 and 1860, the majority of American Quakers 
moved closer and closer toward the dominant evangelical 
religious culture of the United States. The views of Joseph 




118 



Fig. 63 

Salem Orthodox Meeting House 

Author's Photo 




Fig. 64 

Plan, 

Salem Orthodox Meeting House 



1 




1 19 




Fig. 65 

Mansfield Orthodox Meeting House, 

Author's Photo 



Fig. 66 

Newton Hicksite Meeting House, 

Pre-renovation Drawing, 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 




120 










Fig. 67 

Woodstown Orthodox Meeting House 
T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



121 
John Gurney (1788-1847), an extremely influential English 
Friend and traveling minister, were at the heart of the 
movement. Gurney basically took the prime tenants of 
Orthodox Quakerism a step further; increased faith and 
reliance on Christ and the Bible and a standpoint that 
almost denied the existence of "Inner Light." To this mix he 
added one other more radical belief, instant sanctif ication 
by true acceptance of God. Gurneyism was the first step in a 
reform movement that was to lure increasing numbers of 
converts to Quakerism. ^^^ 

Relaxed discipline, both in the written set of rules 
and the application of them, and a new evangelical nature 
made Quakerism a growth religion in the middle years of the 
nineteenth century. Unfortunately for the pursuit of Quaker 
unity, instant salvation was the straw that, once again, 
broke the camel's back. 

Quakerism had long held dear the belief that life was 
one long trial on the route to being saved. Conservative 
Quakers under the leadership of John Wilbur, a respected 
Friend from Rhode Island, rebelled against the Gurneyite 
belief in near instant salvation. Crusading followers of 
Gurney tried to force Wilbur's own meeting to disown him for 
his views. His meeting refused and the event fractured the 



^"^ While the Wilbur/Gurney split caused a drop in 
"Orthodox"/Gurnyite Quaker numbers, from 71,500 members in 
1845 to 55,764 in 1871, the attraction of Evangelical 
Quakerism had by 1908 swelled Gurnyite membership to 97,785 
Hamm, 175. 



122 
whole New England Yearly Meeting. Each of the other yearly 
meetings were then forced to recognize either the vastly 
more numerous Gurnyite New England Yearly Meeting or the 
separatist faction composed of the followers of Wilbur. 

Most of the yearlies fell firmly on the side of the 
Gurneyites but the more conservative Philadelphia Yearly 
Meeting made a unique response that is extraordinarily 
important to this paper. Unlike the other yearly meetings, 
the vast majority of the members of the Philadelphia Yearly 
Meeting had strong Wilburite sympathies, but those favoring 
Gurney's beliefs were some of the most influential and 
active members. The yearly waffled for some time but, in the 
end, the result was astounding. In the hopes of preventing a 
schism within the Philadelphia Yearly itself, it was 
determined to quiet the debate by cutting off all 
communication between Philadelphia Orthodox Friends and 
Orthodox Friends everywhere else ... including England, 
effectively making the New England dispute irrelevant . ^^^ 

The conservative Philadelphia Friends imposed a self 
isolation that was to have a pronounced effect on local 
meeting house architecture. Historians of Philadelphia 
architecture often point to Quaker tradition as the reason 
why Philadelphia remained a city of plain red brick and gray 
stone; a city of small, architecturally modest row houses, 
until well after the middle of the nineteenth-century. The 



^'^^ Frost, 83 and Hamm, 34. 



123 
architecture of both Philadelphia Yearly Meetings remained 
traditional. Interested in perpetuating the ways of the 
Quaker founders, Hicksite meetings naturally retained older 
architectural forms. Orthodox Friends retained traditional 
designs both because they generally were more conservative 
than Quakers in other regions and because they had isolated 
themselves from the modern architectural influences to which 
other Orthodox meetings were subjected. Philadelphia had 
been on the verge of architectural innovation with the 
construction of the less than conventional, architect 
designed Arch Street Meeting House (Fig. 68), in 1804. But 
self imposed isolation put an end to that. The most radical 
innovation in the following years would be the occasional 
variation of the orientation of urban meeting houses so that 
the building's gable end faced the street as it does at the 
Race Street Hicksite Meeting House (Fig. 59), of 1856. It 
was simply a method of retaining traditional design when 
faced with the ever increasing expense of street front 
property in the growing metropolis of Philadelphia. The only 
other architectural innovation found in New Jersey meeting 
house design of the last three quarters of the nineteenth 
century was the addition of twin outhouses, usually attached 
to the two rear corners of the building (Fig. 70). Access to 
these structures was usually achieved from the exterior of 
the building, sometimes however, vestbules were provided at 
the meeting house's two side doors, so that it would not be 



124 




Fig. 68 

Arch Street Meeting House 

Wilson, Philadelphia Quakers. 



Fig. 69 

Race Street Meeting House 

author's photo 





125 



Fig. 70 

Outhouse, 

Chesterfield Orthodox Meeting House 

Author's Photo 

Fig. 71 

Richmond Meeting House, 

built 1877, 

Bronner, An English View. 




L - =^^:^T1 



====i==f=l^ 



-tVfwiiKs— . 



126 
necessary to expose oneself to the weather. Out houses were 
sometimes constructed simulateneously to the meeting houses 
they serviced and in other cases attached to older buildings 
not previously supplied with such an amenity. This slight 
modification was perhaps the most radical deviation made by 
those responsible for Delaware Valley post-schism meeting 
house architecture. 

The most effective way to point out how much the 
conservative nature of Philadelphia Quakerism and its self- 
imposed isolation froze their architecture is to demonstrate 
what happened elsewhere. Figure 71 shows the 1877 Richmond 
Meeting House, the site of the Indiana Yearly Meeting. How 
did medievalizing design and ornament, an indirect 
historical reference to a Catholic Europe, become a part of 
the design of the building which housed a Quaker yearly 
meeting? The reasons behind the building are at least 
twofold. The most important was that as the nineteenth- 
century progressed Orthodox Quakerism became more and more a 
part of the American Evangelical movement. Paid ministers 
were introduced, as were theatrical revival meetings. Quaker 
pastors associated and coordinated with ministers from other 
denominations. Feeling Quakerism was being "left behind," 
prominent revivalist Quakers sought to limit the differences 
between Quakerism and other evangelical religions. Their 
methods were not to bring Quaker doctrine to other groups or 
even to meet them half way but rather to drag the Society of 



127 
Friends out of the Dark Ages and into the American 
Evangelical fold. Along with popular religion came current 
ecclesiastical architectural design, i.e. the "gothic 
revival . " 

The spread of less conventional meeting house design 
was aided by the Quaker institution of traveling ministry. 
Quakers of a certain standing within their home meetings who 
"felt the call" often visited other meetings both to speak 
and listen. In America, the tradition goes back to the first 
English Quakers to set foot in the New World. ^'^* In 
England, it goes all the way back to Quakerism's earliest 
roots, among the seventeenth-century's wandering religious 
dissatisfied, known as "The Seekers of the Truth." In fact, 
English travelling ministers exacerbated each of the primary 
breaks that occurred in American Quakerism. English Quakers 
were present at that fateful Philadelphia Yearly of 1827. 
They counseled Orthodox Friends to avoid compromise and 
helped push American Quakerism over the precipice from which 
it tumbled. ^^^ English Quaker meeeting houses never 
demonstrated the same conformity in exterior appearence that 
was found around Philadelphia and were more likely to be 



^^^ Tolles, Quakers and the Atlantic Culture, 9. 

^'^^ A primary account of the 1827 Philadelphia Yearly 
Meeting is found in William Bacon Evans, Jonathan Evans and 
His Time, 1759-1839 (Boston: Christopher Publishing House, 
1959). Although obviously biased, Thomas Evans' detailed 
description shows just how active the English visitors to 
the yearly meeting were. 



128 
exposed to the most modern of European architectural design. 
Walter Robson, an English Quaker touring America at the time 
of the construction of the Richmond Meeting House, described 
it as "a really handsome building, red brick, with towers at 
one end." He described the old meeting house (Fig. 72), one 
of the same plan that was still being built around 
Philadelphia, as "a poor, old, shabby place. "^'^^ American 
Quakerism always felt itself in the shadow of the London 
Yearly Meeting regardless of the fact that the American 
Quaker population was more numerous than the British. It has 
even been said that part of the reason for the break between 
Hicksite and Orthodox Quakers was because Orthodox American 
Quakers feared being branded heretics if they compromised 
with Hicks and his followers against the will of English 
advisors . ^^'' The opinion of men like Robson undoubtedly 
meant much to the members of yearly meetings still 
maintaining official communication with their British 
counterparts . 

The Indiana Meeting House was a radical design; much 
more so than anything found in New Jersey, but the influence 
of the revival movement was felt architecturally here as 
well. Meeting houses built in Tuckerton (1863, Fig. 73), 



^^^ Walter B. Bronner, Ed. An English View of American 
Quakerism, The Journal of Walter Robson (1842-1929) Written 
During the Fall of 1877, While Traveling among American 
Friends (Philadelphia, American Philosophical Society, 
1970), 85-86. 

^"^ Frost, 68. 



129 




Fig. 72 

Richmond Meeting House, 

built 1822, 

Bronner, An English View. 



Fig. 73 

Tuckerton meeting house 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of 

Pennsylvania 




130 
Beach Haven (c.1880, Fig. 74) and Shrewsbury (1841, Fig. 75) 
may be evidence of the effect of this revival in New Jersey. 
These are three buildings which were in appearnce far closer 
to the typical simple nineteenth century American 
ecclesiastical architecture than they were to historical 
Quaker tradition, varying in design both from the large 
double plan meeting houses that developed in the second half 
of the eighteenth century and from what the more aptly 
suited group of small meeting houses that developed out of 
the 1827 schism. It has been suggested, probably rightfully 
so, that differences developed between Orthodox and Hicksite 
meeting houses. Across the country. Orthodox meeting houses 
were likely to be both more ornate and oriented differently 
than those built by Hicksites. Orthodox meeting houses often 
were entered on the building's gable end, much in the 
fashion of traditional nave oriented Churches and closer in 
style to other American ecclesiastical architecture . ^^^ In 
New Jersey, this "chapel plan" is found at both Tuckerton 
and Beach Haven but otherwise rarely. Members of both 
Philadelphia Yearly Meetings were far more apt to favor 
conservative traditional meeting house design and this is 
most likely associated with the more conservative nature of 



^^^ Willard B. Moore, "The Preferred and Remembered 
Image: Cultural Change and Artif actual Adjustment in Quaker 
Meetinghouses" in Perspectives in Vernacular Architecture 
II, ed. Camille Wells (Columbia, University of Missouri 
Press, 1986), 120-128 and David M. Butler, "Quaker 
Meetinghouses in America...," 94-96. 




il31 



Fig. 74 

Beach Haven Meeting House 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 

Fig. 75 

Shrewsbury Orthodox Meeting 
House, T. Chalkey Matlack 
Collection, Historical Society 
of Pennsylvania 




132 
the isolationist Philadelphia Yearly Meeting. Just as the 
Philadelphia Orthodox Yearly Meeting was unable to endorse 
the evangelical movement which swept other American Orthodox 
Yearlies and the mid-nineteenth century American religious 
scene in general, it was also unwilling to abandon 
traditional meeting house forms in favor of ones more in 
line with mainstream American ecclesastical architecture. 
Consequently, under the aegises of the two Philadelphia 
Yearly Meetings, there was little difference between the 
architecture of a Hicksite meeting house and one of the 
Orthodox. 

While New Jersey nineteenth century Quaker meeting 
houses were more conservative than those found in most other 
parts of the country, they in no way escaped all influence 
from the then current popular design. For example, the 
elongated window proportions on the rear facade of the 
Medford Hicksite Meeting House (1843, Fig. 76) and the large 
semi-lunar eve lights on the Haddonfield Orthodox Meeting 
House (1841, Fig. 77). Other popular additions to both old 
and new meeting houses during the second half of the 
nineteenth century were long porches which replaced the 
previously universal pedimented door hoods or porticos. 
These porches, in addition to being simply popular 
architectural features of the period, provided Friends with 



133 




Fig. 76 

rear, 

Medford Hicksite Meeting House 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 

Fig. 77 

Eve light, 

Haddonfield Orthodox Meeting 

House, Author's Photo 




134 
a sheltered place to gather before and after meeting J^^ 

Overall, mid to late nineteenth century modifications 
in the designs of New Jersey meeting houses were 
superficial. The most telling example and one most 
informative when contrasted against the Richmond Indiana 
Meeting House, without a doubt, must be the 1898 Moorestown 
Orthodox Meeting House (Fig. 78). In 1802, Moorestown 
Friends decided that it was time to replace their old stone 
meeting house, one that had stood at the center of the town 
since 1720. A committee was convened and proposed a sixty- 
six foot long by forty foot wide building, built of brick. 
The structure, although actually about two foot shorter, was 
erected in the same year. While built in the nineteenth- 
century, the building's design was very much a product of 
eighteenth century tradition. Given its very early 
nineteenth century date, only two years after the turn of 
the century, it is not surprising that the meeting house 
would share much in design with ones built in the late 
eighteenth century, but the importance of the building's 
more archaic form becomes clear when it is compared to the 
building erected by the Moorestown Orthodox Meeting after 
the schism. 

With the division of the Moorestown Quaker Meeting, the 
Hicksites remained in control of the meeting house. The 



^^^ Francis J. Puig, The Porches of Quaker Meeting 
Houses in Chester and Delaware Counties 21-30. 




135 



Fig. 7i 

Moorestown Orthodox Meeting House 

Author' s Photo 

Fig. 79 

Moorestown Schoolhouse 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of 

Pennsylvania 




136 
Orthodox, instead held their meetings in the frame school 
house that stood in the meeting house yard (Fig. 79).^^° 
The Orthodox were to be close neighbors to the Hicksite 
Quakers, a situation that surely caused friction. It took 
the Moorestown Orthodox Friends seventy one years to 
construct a meeting house of their own and when they did, it 
was erected on the very site of that school house, a 
distance considerably less than a stone's throw from their 
old home . 

The meeting house the Orthodox Friends chose to erect 
is the primary physical evidence of an architectural 
movement among Quakers in New Jersey that left little other 
physical evidence of its own. The Orthodox Friends 
constructed a colonial revival megalith. The building outdid 
the 1802 structure in every detail, size, proportion, 
ornament. The old meeting house was, to use a Quaker word, 
plain. It was typical of meeting houses of its type, but 
lacked all of the "Georgian" and "Federal" embellishments 
that were so beloved by the colonial revival. While the 
older meeting house lacks any extraneous architectural 
embellishments, the 1898 meeting house contains not only all 



^^° The original status of the first structure in which 
the Moorestown Orthodox Friends met is disputed. The version 
related here is that found in Derry's Old and Historic 
Churches of New Jersey. James C. Purdy's Moorestown, Old and 
New, A Local Sketch (Moorestown, W.J. Lovell, 1886), a book 
written before erection of the 1898 meeting house states 
that the wooden structure was erected in 1829 and never 
served any purpose but that of a Hicksite Quaker meeting 
house (p. 131). 



137 
of the most elaborate affections of the bricklayers art, 
watertable, stringcourse and flat arch brick lintels over 
the window openings, but also a massive cornice that wraps 
around the gable ends of the building, elaborate circular 
eve vents, cast iron snow fencing on the roof and to top it 
all off, four massive false chimney stacks. On one level, we 
could simply dismiss the Moorestown Orthodox Meeting House 
as a colonial revival structure, a design generated by 
practical requirements, traditional meeting house design and 
on a revival style that was becoming increasingly popular. 
But there are deeper reasons for the building's design. The 
issue of authenticity is such a reason. The Hicksite and 
Orthodox factions squabbled, from 1827 to the date of their 
amelioration in 1955, about which group was the true 
descendants of original Society of Friends. By retaining 
possession of an older meeting house, the Moorestown 
Hicksite Quakers held a meaningful symbol. When the Orthodox 
Quakers raised their structure, it became an issue of 
competing meeting houses. One original, more modest 
eighteenth century structure confronted by an elaborate 
nineteenth century imposter. 

Even the issue of the influence of the Colonial Revival 
is not as simple as it might seem. Quakerism was tied to 
social position. Even today the highest levels of 
Philadelphia society are populated by many of Quaker 
ancestry. The mid nineteenth-century saw the genesis of 



138 
serious interest in American history. The first interest in 
historical buildings and sites centered around those 
associated with the Revolution, Washington's Headquarters in 
Cambridge, Carpenter's and Independence Hall in Philadelphia 
and, of course. Mount Vernon. It is no coincidence that the 
early historical descriptions of New Jersey meeting houses 
always centered on their role in the Revolution. The 
Crosswicks Meeting House had a cannonball imbedded in its 
facade as the result of a Revolutionary skirmish. Woodbury 
was a hospital, Evesham, a bivouac area and commissary, 
Burlington, a barracks. Hessians used the Mount Holly 
Meeting as a slaughter house and the British maintained 
their headquarters in the Salem Meeting House yard. These, 
at least, are the stories that have been handed down, some 
may be true, others not, but each was frequently repeated in 
the numerous works of local history that the nineteenth- 
century turned out. By belonging to a meeting that met in an 
old meeting house or at least one that looked old, the 
Quaker garnered a certain social position. Town residents 
knew that Quakers had founded their communities and belonged 
to its oldest families. These were years of patriotism 
fanned by the fear of the ever increasing flow of immigrants 
and the coming of the centennial and even though they 
refused to fight in it, Quakers profited socially in image 
by the ties to the Revolution their meeting houses held. 
This historical pedigree for both Quakers and their 



139 
structures is a part of the equation that explains why in 
the Delaware Valley with its strong colonial history, 
traditional meeting house forms were maintained while in the 
more recently settled midwest they were dropped. 

The Twentieth Century 

Existing meeting houses became important to the Quaker. 
Traditionally, the Quaker placed no special meaning in 
buildings, the meeting house as an artifact held no 
religious importance to them. The concept that a place of 
worship was a "House of God" was revolting to the 
seventeenth or eighteenth-century Friend, it was far too 
Papist. There was no hesitation in demolishing or selling an 
outdated or outgrown building. But by the mid nineteenth- 
century the meeting house had become important to the Quaker 
in its own right. It was now a cultural and social asset and 
as such no early New Jersey meeting house was deliberately 
replaced during the last half of the nineteenth-century. Old 
meeting houses have seen much change. In many, dwindling 
meeting size and rising fuel costs has mandated that the 
gallery be completely floored over to prevent heat from 
rising up and into that large and usually unoccupied space. 
The other often encountered modification has been the 
removal of the central partition. With the twentieth-century 
demise of the women's meeting, these devices were obsolete. 
They survive in active meetings usually only in situations 



140 
where the meeting size is small enough not to warrant the 
expense of heating the extra space. The Salem and Woolwich 
(Mullica Hill) Meeting Houses are two examples of large 
meetings that removed their partitions. 

The twentieth-century has seen the construction of only 
four entirely new meeting houses (Atlantic City, Atlantic 
City Area, Merchantville and Westfield) probably for the 
simple reason that there is a great excess of available 
meeting space. This excess of meeting house space is perhaps 
the longest lasting effect of the Orthodox/Hicksite schism 
and one of the primary issues of importance concerning the 
continued preservation of these important structures. The 
start of the twentieth-century saw a substantial drop in 
membership at many New Jersey meetings and events which led, 
for the most part, to the reconciliation the divergent 
groups of Friends. The result, in terms of the schism 
swelled body of meeting houses, was that many meeting houses 
fell into disuse. Some have simply been lost. Others have 
been sold and converted to other purposes. The Salem 
Orthodox Meeting House is now home to legal offices. 
Trenton's Orthodox Meeting House has been refitted as a 
Quaker community center. The Moorestown Orthodox Meeting 
House serves as a school gymnasium and the Westfield Meeting 
House is now a Quaker preschool. Both the Old and Upper 
Springfield Meeting Houses have become residences. The same 
fate has befallen the Orthodox meeting house at Mansfield. 



141 

The Bordentown Meeting House is now bank office space and 
the Haddonfield Orthodox Meeting House is a super market 
(Fig. 80). 

Usually, the meeting houses constructed before the 
schism, valued as more historic, have managed to remain in 
continuous use and in the hands of Quaker Meetings. 
Unfortunately, many architecturally important meeting 
houses, such as Amy's Mountain, Mansfield, Alloway's Creek 
and Mount Laurel, although still under the care of Quaker 
meetings, now, most of the time stand empty. While the 
meetings which oversee these buildings most often understand 
their worth, the maintenance of these buildings is none-the- 
less a financial burden. Consequently, some have undergone 
long dormant periods without much repair. These are some of 
the most valuable and most threatened of all surviving 
meeting houses. 



142 




Fig. 80 

Haddonfield Hicksite Meeting House 

Author's Photo 



Part II. An Annotated. Illustrated Inventory of Quaker Meeting 
Houses Constructed in New Jersey 

Introduction 

There were five Quarterly Meetings (not counting the 
twin meetings spawned by the Separation of 1827) that have 
had oversight of New Jersey Monthly Meetings. Four of these, 
Burlington, Haddonfield, Salem and Shrewsbury and Rahway 
Quarterly Meetings, can truly be said to have been New 
Jersey Quarterly Meetings. The fifth, the Bucks Quarterly, 
was a Pennsylvania Quarterly which, after 1859, had 
oversight of the Kingwood Monthly Meeting. The oldest of 
these quarterly meetings is the Shrewsbury and Rahway. This 
meeting was a part of the New York Yearly Meeting until 1682 
at which point it transferred to the Philadelphia Yearly 
Meeting. After the Separation of 1827, in 1833 to be 
precise, the Hicksite Meetings of this Quarter transferred 
back to the New York Yearly. The other meetings have, since 
its start in 1682, always been members of the Philadelphia 
Yearly. The following is a short building history of all of 
the meeting houses of the four New Jersey Quarterly 
Meetings. Quarterly meetings are arranged alphabetically as 
are the individual meetings within each quarterly. In the 
event a meeting was divided by the schism of 1827 and a 
second meeting house erected to house the dispossessed 
group, the meeting which retained the original meeting house 
is listed first regardless of alphabetical order. 



143 



144 

Meeting Houses of The Burlington Quarterly Meeting 

Amy's Mount (Mount, Shreve's Mount, July town) 

The Amy's Mount Meeting was organized about 1743. 

Meetings from 1743 to 1775 were held in a log structure J^^ 

Several inconsistencies exist in primary source material 

which has caused dispute among local historians as to 

whether this building was, in fact, a designated meeting 

house or a school house that doubled for the purpose. The 

first minute reference to the building reads as thus. 

"...sundry Friends belonging to the upper part of 
Mount Holly Meeting made application in writing to 
Burlington Monthly Meeting for liberty to hold a 
meeting for worship on the first day of each week 
during the winter season at the meeting house now 
standing near Caleb Shreve's Mount. "^^^ 

That the building was actually constructed of logs is 
indicated by a passage in the journal of Ephraim Tomlinson, 
"On the 20th day 6th mo., 1771, I was at the marriage of my 
son-in-law John Gardiner at the log meeting house hard by 
July town. "^^^ 

Which ever the case, the building was replaced in 1774, 

"To the monthly meeting of Friends of Burlington: 
We the subscribers with others having obtained the 
liberty of holding a meeting for religious worship 



^^^ Burlington Monthly, 3rd day, 8th month, 1743. 

^^2 Ibid. 

^^^ Major E.M. Woodward. History of Burlington County, 
New Jersey. (Philadelphia: Everts & Peck, 1983), 447. 



145 

near Shreve's Mount have hither to met in a school 
house which we find very inconvenient for that 
purpose and therefore are desirous of building a 
small comfortable house ... "^^'' 

Land was obtained in 1775, 

"Jonathan Hough Jr. conveyed to Daniel Smith, 
Samuel Shinn, Samuel Allison, John Comfort, Peter 
Ellis, Edward Black and John Milliard, the 
survivor or survivors of them, in trust one acre, 
two rods of land and twenty five perches of land 
to and for the purpose of building a meeting house 
there on, for the use of the people called Quakers 
and for a place to bury their dead"^^^ 

The meeting house (Figs. 81 and 82) was constructed of 

stone and is the same structure that survives today. The 

building has endured two fires, one in 1800 which consumed 

most of the wooden portions of the building and another in 

1809.^^^ The Amy's Mount Meeting House is located on the 

south west intersection of Juliustown Road (Burlington 

County 669) and Amy's Mount Road (Burlington County 668). 



Barnaget 

Matlack believes that this Quaker meeting was first 
formed about 1 767 and that the small frame meeting house 
located at Barnaget, N.J. was constructed very soon 



^^'* Burlington Monthly, 5th day 12th Month, 1774. 

^^^ Mount Holly Monthly Meeting Miscellaneous Papers, 
Friends Historic Library, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, 
PA. 

^^^ Mount Preparative Minutes. (Friends Historical 
Library, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA), 2d month, 17 
1800 and Mount Preparative Meeting account book 1797-1882. 
(Friends Historical Library, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, 
PA), 12th mo. 12th 1809. 




1 46 



Figure 81 

Amy's Mount Meeting House, 

main facade, 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society Of Pennsylvania 



Figure 82 

Amy's Mount Meeting House 

street facade, 

author ' s photo 




147 

after. ^^'^ Salter's History of Monmounth and Ocean Counties 

quotes a deed dated June 11, 1770. The deed was from Timothy 

Ridgeway and Levi Cramer of Stafford Township, Monmouth 

County and was to Stephen Burdsel and Job Ridgeway, the son 

of the said Timothy, Daniel Shrouds and Joseph Gauntt. The 

property concerned was "one piece or parcell of land 

containing one acre and a half quarter," and specifically 

mentioned an already existing meeting house. ^^^ Contrary to 

general belief, this meeting house is probably not the one 

standing in Barnaget today on the north side of Bay Ave. 

(Ocean County 609), between Walnut Lane and Water St. 

"At Little Egg Harbor Monthly Meeting held the 

12th day of the 10th month 1848 John Collins, 

Willits Fawkes, Timothy Pharo, Robert Pharo and 
John Collins Jr. is appointed a committee to raise 
money by subscription for the purpose of Building 
a meeting house on Friends old meeting house lot 
at Barnaget. . ."^^^ 

The phrase "Friends old meeting house lot" may very 

well suggest that the original Barnaget Meeting House had 

already, by 1848, met its demise. In any case, the new 

Barnaget Meeting House (Fig. 83) was finished by 1851. 



^" Matlack, 151 . 

^^^ Edwin Salter. Old Times in Old Monmouth: Historical 
Reminiscences of Old Monmouth County, New Jersey (Monmouth 
Democrat, Freehold New Jersey, 1887, reprinted by Baltimore 
Genealogical Publishing Co., 1980) 255. Quoting deed recited 
in Freehold County Deed Book W, p 354, recorded July 22, 
1813. 

^^^ Minutes of the Little Egg Harbor Monthly Meeting 
(Friends Historical Library, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, 
PA), 12th day, 10th month 1848. 



1 48 




"igure 83 

3arnaget Meeting House 

r. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

4istorical Society of Pennsylvania 



Figure 84 

Beach Haven Meeting House 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



■■''■«^.. 




149 

"At Little Egg Harbor Monthly Meeting held the 
10th day of the 4th month, 1851... The committee 
appointed to superintend the building of the 
meeting house at Barnaget now makes a full report 
and say the house is built, the cost of which is 
755 dollars and 46 cents... "^^° 



Beach Haven 

The Beach Haven Quaker Meeting was first organized in 

1878 and the meeting house (Fig. 84) constructed two years 

later. Matlack quotes correspondence, dated 1929, between 

Robert F. Engle of Beach Haven and himself. 

"This meeting house was built by Dr. Asshurst, 
Archelaus Pharo, and Philip Duane . It stood on 
Third Street next to Archelaus Pharo' s Cottage, 
later Dr. Asshurst' s. As Walter Pharo was the son 
and legatee of the donor it was his to dispose of 
when the meeting was discontinued (1907). He 
presented it to the Beach Haven Public Library for 
library and entertainment purposes and it was 
moved to a lot on Beach Avenue adjoining and 
belonging to the methodist church ... Later Mrs. 
Pharo, now a widow, presented the town with a 
wonderful new library building in memory of her 
husband and his f ather ... There being no further 
use for the building for such purposes as the 
donor intended, and as it occupied ground 
belonging to the Methodist Episcopal Church, by 
consent of all concerned, it was turned over to 
the said church for Sunday school use."^^^ 

The Kynette Methodist Church, that which is spoken of 

above, was later destroyed by a fire from which the old 

meeting house survived. ^^^ 



160 

1851 . 

161 



Little Egg Harbor Monthly, 10th day, 4th month, 



Matlack, 153-4 
^^2 Matlack, 156. 



150 



Bordentown 



"At a Monthly Meeting of Friends held in their 
Meeting house in Chesterfield the 4th of the 9th 
mo. 1736, Friends appoint Isaac Horner, Richard 
French, William Morris, Joshua Wright & Marmaduke 
Watson to treat with Joseph Borden about land to 
build a meeting house on & for a graveyard he 
having made an offer to some friends concerning 
it."^^^ 

Friends apparently changed thier minds about the 

proposed location for the new meeting house, 

"At a Monthly Meeting of Friends held at their 
meeting house in Chesterfield the 3 of the 2 mo., 
1740... Thomas Potts, Jun . , Preserve Brone Jun. to 
get a deed from Joseph Borden for a piece of 
Ground on the other side of the street for a 
meeting house & to deliver up the old deed for the 
other piece of ground. "^^^ 

The second plot of land was purchased on 10 mon . 1, 

1737 and the meeting house (Figs. 85 and 86) was completed 

in 1740. This second plot discused above is located in the 

center of modern Bordentown, close to the southeast corner 

of Walnut Street and Farnsworth Avenue. The Bordentown 

Preparative Meeting was discontinued in 1878 and all usage 

of the building ceased soon after that.^^^ For many years 

the building was used for the storage of wallpaper by Mrs. 

D. H. Clevenger who maintained a buisness next door.^^^ By 



^^^ Minutes of the Chesterfield Monthly Meeting Minutes 
(Friends Historical Library, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, 
PA), 4th of 9th month 1736. 

■'^'^ Chesterfield Monthly, 3, 2nd Mo. 1740. 

^^^ Matlack, 158. 

^^6 Ibid. , 155. 



151 




Figure 85 

Bordentown Meeting House 

Author's Photo 



Figure 86 

Bordentown Meeting House 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 




152 

1929, the building had come into the possesion of the bank 
neighboring it on the corner of Walnut and Farnsworth. In 
the summer of 1929, the building was remodeled to serve as 
office space for that institution, which still occupies 
itJ^^ 

Burlington 

Meetings for worship were first held at Burlington in 
1677. The earliest surviving minute of the Burlington 
Monthly Meeting is dated 15th of ye 5th mo. 1678. By 1683, 
the Burlington Quarterly Meeting, held alternately in 
Burlington and Chesterfield, was established. In 1681, it 
was deemed necessary to build a meeting house for Burlington 
Friends. ^^^ 

In the next year, 1682, the Burlington Monthly Meeting 
commissioned a hexagonal meeting house to be built by 
Francis Collings, "according to the draught of a six-square 
building of forty feet square from out to out..."^^^ 

The building apparently took some time to complete. 

During a monthly meeting held in 1685, 

"George Hutchinson + James Budd are willing to 
take ye trouble upon them to endevour to cause 

Francis Collings to perform his covenants in 



^^^ Ibid. , 158. 

^^^ Burlington Monthly, 6th of 12th mo. 1681 



169 



Burlington Monthly, 5th of 12th mo. 1682 



153 

building ye meeting house & Court House to ye 
finishing of what he undertook .. "^^° 

7th of ye 10th mo. 1696- "Ordered by this meeting that ye 

month meeting be Kept at the new meeting house... "^^^ 

"This meeting having taken into their 
consideration ye coldness of ye season for this 
winter have thought it convenient to remove ye 
meting to Geo. Hutchinson's house both first days 
& fifth days & to return it again when the weather 
is more Favorable . "^^^ 

"It was proposed at this meeting the building of a 
winter meeting house. It was agreed that it should 
be done as followeth, viz: a Brick house a Brick 
and half thick after it is raised a foot and a 
half from the ground, which is to be done with 
good sound stone and the wall to be built of equal 
height with the old meeting-house and the roof to 
be covered with cedar and join the awther roof, 
the breadth to be equal with one of the old house 
and the length 30 feet. To be plastered with lime 
and hair, and to be lined below with ?slit dale? 
4ft high from the seats - with 2 good pine floors, 
one of them to be grooved"'''^ 

Several images of the first Burlington Meeting House 

(Fig. 87) survive in the collections of the Friends 

Historical Library at Swarthmore College and at the 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania. These all appear to be 

based on one original painting or drawing. The earliest 

mention of any artistic rendition of the meeting house was 



^^° Burlington Monthly, 7th of ye 5th Mo. 1685. 

^''^ George DeCou . A Provincial Capitol: Historical 
Sketches of Burlington, New Jersey, And Neighborhood 
(Philadelphia: Harris and Partridge, 1945), 61. Woodward, 
146 makes the earliest mention of the heat problem. 
Burlington Monthly, 7th of ye 10th month, 1696. 

^''^ Burlington Monthly, 11th month, 2nd, 1687. 

^''2 Burlington Monthly, 3mo. 4th, 1696. 




154 



Figure 87 

Hexagonal Burlington Meeting House 

wash drawing, 

Graphics Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



Figure 88 

Plan, 

Hexagonal Burlington Meeting House 

Graphics Collection, 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 




155 

made by Amelia Gummere who stated that the said image was 
given to her by a native of Burlington, Samuel Emlen dating 
the image to at least as early as 1884 J'"* A surviving 
floor plan (Fig. 88), showing both the original structure 
and the "winter addition" can be found in the Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania's Manuscript Department, but there 
is no indication as to its date. 

On February 13, 1740, The Pennsylvania Gazette reported 
the following: "From Burlington, we hear that the Meeting 
House on High Street there, was last week burnt down by 
accidental fire."^^^ A confirming minute dated 2nd day of 
ye 4th Mo. 1740 stated that "A minute came from our last 
Quarterly Meeting, to this purpose, that the considerable 
progress is made toward the reparation of the meeting-house 
that was burned in Burlington"^''^ 

The building was altered in 1781 to increase its 

capacity . 

"Friends having been put to some inconvenience at 
times for want of room in the meeting House at 
Burlington and as it is thought there may be an 
alteration made to advantage to this meeting in 
that respect which will be attended with but a 
small expense the following friends are appointed 
to consider the proposal and if they think it may 
be advantageous to get the work completed against 



^^"^ Amelia Mott Gummere. Friends in Burlington 
(Philadelphia: Collins, 1884), 25. 

^^^ DeCou, Provincial Capitol, 52. 

^^^ Burlington Monthly, 2nd day of ye 4th mo. 1740. 



156 

the next Quarterly Meeting to be held in this 
place . ^^^ 

The work was completed much later than anticipated, by 
26th 11, 1781 J^^ 

Amelia Mott Gummere in her essay "Friends in 

Burlington," quoted a record of the Burlington Friends 

School dated 7 mo. 28, 1792 for the date of this building's 

final destruction. "Laborers were employed to take down the 

old building back of the new meeting house, some time since 

purchased of the Quarterly . "^''^ The "new meeting house" 

(Figs. 89, 90, 91 and 92) mentioned in the above quote was 

built in 1783 on the same lot of ground as the first meeting 

house, between it and High street. 

"Burlington Monthly meeting had under 
consideration the erection of a new meeting house 
in Burlington on the ground belonging to the 
Quarter, in order to accommodate the Quarterly 
meeting; and it appearing the sence of the monthly 
meeting to be best to put the matter forward by 
proposing it to this meeting; and it was concluded 
that friends of Burlington Monthly Meeting have 
liberty to build as they propose. "^^° 

"We of the committee appointed by the Quarterly 
Meeting to consider of the building a New meeting 
house in Burlington to accommodate the Quarterly 
Meeting have after considering the matter agreed 



Minutes of the Burlington Quarterly Meeting (Friends 
Historical Library, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA), 
26th 2mo. 1781 . 

^^^ Burlington Quarterly, 26th 11 1781. 

^^^ Minutes of the Burlington Friends School, 7th mo. 
28, 1792, as quoted in Gummere, 68. 

^^° Burlington Quarterly, 26th 5mo, 1783. 



157 

to propose that the size of the House be about the 
same as that at Crosswicks . . "^^^ 

The reasons why the Crosswicks Meeting House (see Fig. 
95) was chosen as the model for the proposed building in 
Burlington are both obvious and less than obvious. 
Crosswicks was the other site of the Quarterly Meeting. If 
the 1773 meeting house had been found satisfactory to both 
the Chesterfield Monthly Meeting and Burlington Quarterly 
Meeting, which was also held there, then it is logical that 
the Quarterly might propose its plan for the new Burlington 
Meeting House. There was also another reason. In 1773, when 
Friends of the Chesterfield Meeting first proposed building 
a new meeting house to accommodate holding the quarterly 
meeting in Crosswicks, an agreement was made and was noted 
in the Monthly and Quarterly Meeting minutes. Burlington 
Friends, in order to provide two sufficient buildings in 
which to hold the quarterly meeting, would support the 
construction of the new Crosswicks Meeting House if the 
Chesterfield Meeting would reciprocate when Burlington 
decided to replace their meeting house. It is natural that 
the two plans would therefore be similar, in design as well 
as in expense. ^^^ 

The meeting house constructed in Burlington was nearly 
identical in size and plan to that in Crosswicks and like 



181 



Ibid., 24th 11th 1783 



^^^ Ibid., 30th Of the eighth month 1773, 



158 




Figure 89 

Burlington Meeting House 

Author's Photo 



Figure 90 

Burlington Meeting House, 

rear, 

author's photo 




1 59 




Figure 9 1 , 

Burlington Meeting House 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



Figure 92 

interior, 

Burlington Meeting House 

author' s photo 




160 
its Chesterfield prototype it survives today and is actively 
used for worship. It is located on the south side of High 
Street, Burlington City, N.J. 

Burlington (Yearly) 

The Philadelphia Yearly Meeting was born out of a 

General Meeting held in Burlington in 1581. That meeting was 

held in Burlington until 1685 and then between 1685 and 1760 

the site alternated annually between Burlington and 

Philadelphia . ^^^ In Burlington, general and yearly meetings 

were first housed in the hexagonal meeting house and after 

1715, in a meeting house of its own. 

"At a Quarterly Meeting of Ffrds held at our 
meeting hous in Burlington ye 27th, of ye 12 mo. 
1715. It is agreed at this meeting that a Brick 
hous be built in Burlington for ye servis of ye 
yearly meeting. According to the dementions here 
after mentioned, viz: 40 foot long, and 30 foot 
wide and ten foot of wall above the floor, at the 
discretion of the Ffrds mentioned for the servis 
and that subscription be forthwith made in order 
to enable the said to procure the said work to be 
ready as they can for ye servis of ye Next Yearly 
Meeting. "^«* 

Twenty five men were appointed to oversee the selection 

of a plan. To accommodate the new meeting house, Samuel 

Bunting, Peter Fretwell, Daniel Smith and Samuael Smith 

purchased from one, Thomas Wetherall, 



Ibid., 28th Of 6th month, 1681 
Ibid. , 27 12 mo. 1715. 



161 

"one certain lott of land situate lying and being 
in the town of Burlington, on ye North Side of ye 
Broade Street neare ye mid way betweene High 
Street and York Street and fronteth on ye said 
Broade street in length sixty foot and also runeth 
backwards north & west according to ye course of 
High Street sixty foot so that ye front line & 
back line & side lines are all of equal length 
sixty foot."^^^ 

Matlack describes this plot of land as "on the northern side 

of Broad Street, east of High Street, adjoining the lot on 

which the Baptist Church now stands. "^^^ 

It is most likely that this building served the yearly 

meeting until its permanent withdrawl to Philadelphia in 

1760. A Quarterly minute dated ye 25th of 12th mo. 1722 may 

however give evidence otherwise. "This meeting agrees that 

Burlington friends may have the use of the new meeting house 

to teach scool in provided that they can have a scool master 

that is in unity with Friends and when it shall be so 

imployed ye said Burlington Friends to keep it in repairs as 

to windows. "^^^ There is no reason to believe that the 

building could not have served both as a school and its 

function as the site of the Yearly Meeting but it seems 

strange that the Burlington Friends would have to assume 

responsibility for the windows in such case unless it was no 

longer being used by the yearly meeting. In either case the 



^^^ DeCou, Provincial Capitol, 64, quoting Deed, dated 
sixteenth of the third month, called May, 1716. 

^^^ Matlack, 163. 

^^^ Burlington Quarterly, ye 25th of 12th mo. 1722. 



162 

building was permenantly remodeled as a school house in 

-| 775 188 

"The meeting was informed that in pursuance of 
encouragement received from committee which has 
the care of the meeting house situate on Broad 
Street in Burlington friends of that town had 
proceeded to make to the house considerable 
repairs in order to Accomodate it for a school 
which they are about to open.."^^^ 

Some of the details of the remodeling were recorded in a 

Burlington Quarterly Meeting minute dated the 29th of the 

fifth month, 1780, . 

"The meeting taking under consideration the 
request from Friends of the preparative meeting of 
Burlington to make two lodging rooms in the 
meeting house in broad street for the better 
accomadation of Friends shool kept there, it is 
agreed that the liberty sp desired is 
allowed. "^5° 

The building has long since been demolished. 



Burlington (Hicksite) 

Immediately after the separation, Burlington Hicksite 
Quakers rented a building that was located on East Union 
Street known by Matlack as "the old Cocoonery . "^^^ In 1845, 
they erected a meeting house (Fig. 93) on the western side 



■"^^ Ibid., 30th 8th month 1779. 

^^^ Ibid., 30th 8th month 1779. 

^^° Burlington Quarterly Minutes, 29th day of the 5th 
month, 1780. 

^^^ Matlack, 161 . 



163 

of High Street south of Federal back from the street J^^ 

The lot was obtained in 1844.''^^ 

Fourth Month, 7th, 1845 

"Burlington Monthly Meeting Held at Ancocas . . . The 
committee would suggest for the consideration of 
the meeting that the dimensions of the house 
should be 25 by 40 feet with 15 feet storrie and 
built of brick. . . "^^^ 

The plan was changed before the building's construction. 

"Proposed to alter the plan for the meeting house 
in Burlington as follows... to wit... on South side 
to have two doors instead of one and four windows 
instead of two. On North Side two windows instead 
of three The size of the glass to be 1 x 1 5 
instead of 9 by 1 1 and twelve in number. Doors + 
window shutters to be pannellled instead of lined. 
The doors on South side to be double and one foot 
more of foundation of brick except the centre wall 
which will be of stone to be a cellar door 3ft 
wide in the cellar. -to make the alterations above 
specified Peter Keene will charge seventy two 
dollars in addition to the original contract with 
which the Building Committee agree. "^^^ 

The total cost of the meeting house, horse sheds and fence 

was $1834.86.''^^ 



^^^ DeCou, Provincial Capitol, 70. 

^^^ Minutes of the Burlington Orthodox Monthly Meeting 
(Friends Historical Library, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, 
PA), 3rd day, 3rd month, 1844 and 11th day, 4th mo. 1844. 



Minutes of the Burlington Hicksite Monthly Meeting 
(Friends Historical Library, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, 
PA), fourth monrth, 7th 1845. 

^^^ Letter, Joseph Parrish, Charles Ridgeway and Peter 
Keen to the Burlington Monthly Meeting, in Burlington 
Monthly Meeting (Hicksite) Financial Records, Misc. 1845- 
1846 (Friends Historical Library, Swarthmore College, 
Swarthmore, PA). 

^^^ Burlington Monthly, 7 mo. 5th, 1847. 




164 



"igure 93, 

3urlington Hicksite Meeting House, 

before 1929 alterations 

r. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

■listorical Society of Pennsylvania 



Figure 94 

Burlington Hicksite Meeting House 

post 1929 alterations 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 




165 
In 1910, the building was first leased, and then later 
in the same year, sold to a Polish/Lithuanian Catholic 
Church J^'' The price was $1700 in cash and another $1200 in 
a mortgage at five percent interest J^^ The structure was 
remodeled at this time (Fig. 94). Its orientation was 
changed to create a nave and a porch was added to its new 
front facade. The 1845 date stone was retained. This 
building was demolished in 1935.^^^ 

Chesterfield (Crosswicks) 

The first Chesterfield Meeting House, located in 
Crosswicks, was completed sometime just after 10th mo. 4, 
1692.2°° On the 11th mo., 7th, 1691 a committee was 
established to chose a carpenter to construct the building, 
strong evidence that this first Chesterfield Meeting House 
was a frame structure . 2°^ The job was given to one, John 
Greene. 2°2 



^^'' DeCou, Provincial Capitol, 71, Quoting Burlington 
County Deed Book 458, 398 in the County Clerks Office Mount 
Holly. 

^^^ Albert W. Fowler, Assistant Director Swarthmore 
Friends Library to Marjorie M. J. Heal, Clerk, Burlington 
Monthly Meeting, June 25, 1976. Typescript copy, Burlington 
Monthly Meeting, Pamphlet group 1 (Friends Historical 
Library, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA). 



199 



200 



201 



202 



Matlack, 21 1 . 

Chesterfield Monthly, 10th mo. 4, 1692 

Ibid. , 7th 12th mo. 1691 . 

Ibid. , 10th mo 4, 1692. 



166 

A second meeting house replaced the first, in 1706. 

This time the choice of building material was brick. 

"At a Monthly Meeting of friends held at their 
meeting house in Chesterfield ye 2nd day of ye 3d 
month 1706, William Wood and Francis Davenport 
acquaints this meeting that they have agreed with 
William Mott for 40000 Thousand of Good Bricks to 
be made for 40 pounds with which the meeting is 
satisfied and desires yt they will take care to 
make articles of their agreement . "^°-^ 

Alterations were made to the building in 1752 for the 

purpose of accommodating the women's meeting. ^^'^ "The 

Friends appointed concerning the repairs and enlargement of 

the meeting house report that it is their opinion that a 

leanto added to the Northside of the house sixteen foot wide 

will be the most convenient . ^°^" 

In 1773, this structure was, in turn, replaced by a 

third building (Fig. 95), also of brick, in order to 

accommodate the holding of the Burlington Quarterly Meeting 

in Crosswicks . ^°^ Building a new meeting house was first 

proposed to the Quarterly Meeting on the 22nd of 2mo. 

1773.^°^ A committee was sent to visit the Friends Meeting 

at Buckingham, P. A., to examine their new meeting house and 

make recommendations for the construction of the new one in 



Ibid. , 2nd, 3rd Mo. 1706 
Ihid. , 5th 4th mo 1752. 



203 
204 

2°^ Ibid., 3 of 5th mo 1753. 
^°^ Ibid., 4th 3rd mo, 1773. 

207 



Burlington Quarterly, 22nd of 2mo. 1773. 



167 

Chesterfield. "This meeting appoints Stacy Potts, Abraham 

Skirm, James Oldel & Benjamin Clark to view the Buckingham 

Meeting House and also to know the expense thereof to out 

next meeting. "^°^ The committee responded that, 

"We have considered of the size of the house and 
plan, and are of the opinion that Buckingham 
meeting house is nearest to what we would 
recommend with such improvements as may be made 
there on to advantage . "^°^ 

Construction of the new meeting house was approved the 

7th of the 10th month 1773.^^° This meeting house survives 

and located in the center of the town of Crosswicks. It is 

located North East of the corner of Front and Church 

Streets . 

Chesterfield (Orthodox) 

Burlington Orthodox Friends first held their meetings 
in the home of Joseph Hendrickson on Buttonwood Street. In 
1831, they constructed, on a plot of land bought from Samuel 
Bunting, a small frame meeting house. ^" This structure 
would later be moved to another portion of the lot and 
refitted as a school. In 1854, they constructed a small 



2°^ Chesterfield Monthly, 1st of 7mo 1773. 

^°^ Burlington Quarterly, 30th of the 8th month, 1773. 

2^° Burlington Monthly, 7th of the 10th mo. 1773. 

^" Minutes of the Chesterfield Orthodox Monthly Meeting 
(Friends Historical Library, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, 
PA), 8th day, 4th Month 1828, and Chesterfield Tercentenary 
Committee. Chesterfield Township Heritage (Crosswicks, N J : 
Chesterfield Tercentenary Committee, 1954), 146. 




Figure 95 

Chesterfield Meeting House 

Author' s Photo 



Figure 96 

Chesterfield Orthodox Meeting House 
T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania 




169 
brick meeting house (Fig. 96) which still stands today on 
Bordentown Rd . (Burlington County 672).^^^ It is presently 
occupied by the Chesterfield Historical Society. 

East Branch (Robin's Meeting) 

This meeting was first organized in 1739 and by 26th of 
3m, 1740 was housed in its own building .^^-^ The most recent 
building (Fig. 97) was, according to its date stone, 
constructed in 1816. The last recorded minute of the East 
Branch Preparative Meeting is dated 21 of 3d mo. 1833.^^^ 
The building survived well into the twentieth century but 
has since been demolished sometime after Feb. 1930.^^^ It 
was located approximately 7 miles east of Allentown on the 
north side of New Canton-Stone Tavern Rd . (Monmouth County 
524), between Imlaystown-Hightstown Rd . and East Branch Rd . 

Little Egg Harbor (Tuckerton) 

The old Little Egg Harbor Meeting House (Fig. 98) was 
erected by Edward Andrews in 1709.^^^ In the 1868, "History 



^^^ Chesterfield Orthodox Monthly, 9th month, 7, 1853 
and 4th month, 5th 1853. 

^^^ Matlack, 168, and Chesterfield Monthly, 26th of 3mo, 
1740. 

^^'* Minutes of the East Branch Preparative Meeting 
(Friends Historical Library, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, 
PA) , 21 of 3d mo. 1833. 

^^^ Matlack, 170. 

2^^ Blackman, 194. 



170 




Figure 97 

East Branch Meeting House 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



171 

of Little Egg Harbor Township," Mrs. Leah Blackman wrote, 

"The old meeting house was a one story edifice, 
built in the plainest style of architecture. There 
was a smaller structure attached to the west end 
of the principal building, where in the females 
transacted the buisness pertaining to their 
portion of the society. The roof of the meeting 
house was a hip-roof, as was the fashion of that 
primitive age, and the four sides were covered 
with cedar shingles, and the inside of the house 
was ceiled with boards, and what they called the 
gallery was a raised plateform; and seats for the 
audience were long benches with two rows of slats 
for backs: most of the seats had movable cushions 
covered with brown Holland on the north side of 
the church there were large wooden shutters, 
which, in warm weather, were opened for the 
purpose of admitting air. The builders had been 
spairing of glass, and there were but four windows 
in the church, and they were about four feet 
square, with nine panes of seven by nine glass. 
These were the windows it contained when 
demolished. The first windows of the meeting house 
were imported from Old England, and the panes were 
small diamond-shaped, and the sash formed of lead: 
and during the Revolutionary War, the windows were 
taken out and concealed behind the wooden ceiling, 
in order to keep them out of the hands of those 
who would have been likely to have appropriated 
the leaden sash to the formation of musket 
balls. "21^ 

In the year 1853, this building was taken down and replaced 

with a new frame meeting house (Fig. 99) which still stands 

on the west side of Route 9 south of Tuckerton .^^® 



Little Egg Harbor (Bridgeport, Wading River) 

There is very little evidence of this meeting house 
"At a monthly meeting held at Little Egg Harbor 



2^^ Ibid., 194. 

2^^ Little Egg Harbor Monthly, 5th mo. 14. 1863 




172 



Figure 98, 
Little Egg Harbor Meeting House, 
T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



Figure 99 

Tuckerton Meeting House 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 




173 

13th day 1 mo. 1825 one of the committee appointed 
to attend the indulged meeting at Bass River 
report in behalf of the Committee that all the 
meeting allow' d to be held there has been kept up 
and attended to general satisfaction and reported 
there is a new meeting house built at Bridgeport 
this meeting think best to discontinue the 
indulged meeeting at Bass River but that it be 
held at Bridgeport for six month... "^^^ 

On visiting the site of this meeting house in 1929, T. 

Chalkey Matlack had this to say, 

"there is little left to recall the meeting house 
at Bridgeport. The village is small and has long 
since changed its name to Wading River deriving 
the present appellation from the stream of water 
flowing past the place. At the branching of the 
road at the end of the long bridge spanning the 
river, is an old house by some termed "The Bridge 
House." It stands by the edge of a ragged and 
unkept woodland, where, only a few rods within, on 
a slightly rising elevation of ground, is the 
"lonely" little graveyard marking the location of 
the Friends' meeting house of earlier days... A few 
feet eastward of this "lonely" graveyard are the 
ruins of the old meeting house, a frame structure, 
by disuse fell into decay and at length crumbled 
to ruins. Later a forest fire completed the 
destruction, and, in 1929, there only remains the 
foundation of the house, over which the plaster of 
the inner walls lies flat and while on the surface 
of the floor space, while a few pieces of charred 
timbers lie around to testify to its former 
existence . "^^° 



Lower Mansfield (Mansfield Neck) 

This is another meeting house about which little 
information survives. E. M. Woodward's 1883 History of 
Burlington County, N.J., referring to the year 1783, stated 
that 



^^^ Ibid., 13th day, 1 mo 1825. 
22° Matlack, 176. 



174 

"it appears there were at that time two principal 
meetings in the township, under the titles of 
Mansfield and Lower Mansfield, the latter, being 
returned as a subordinate branch of Burlington 
Monthly Meeting, was located at or near what is 
now the village of "Bustleton" where the public 
school house now stands. "^^^ 

Michner states that "A meeting was allowed to be held 
at William Folwell's on First days once in three weeks, 
during the winter season... In 1783, it was established with 
the privilege of a preparative meeting, it has since been 
discontinued . "^^^ 

The Burlington Monthly Meeting minutes record that 

"Friends of Mansfield Neck" requested permission to 

construct a meeting house and advice in its siting in 

1781.^^^ Matlack's 1930 description of the location of the 

site of the Lower Mansfield Meeting house is, "in the hamlet 

of Bustleton at the forks of the road where the church now 
stands. "224 



Mansfield 

The first Mansfield Meeting House is said by both 
Matlack, quoting Samuel Smith, and Woodward to have been a 



221 Woodward, 356. 

222 Ezra Michner. A Retrospective of Early Quakerism, 
(Philadelphia: T. Ellwood Zell, 1860), 37. 



223 



224 



Burlington Monthly, 1st of 1st mo, 1781. 
Matlack, 168. 



175 
"long, narrow frame building" erected in 1731 on land 
purchased of Francis Gibbs.^^^ The History of Burlington 
County, stated that one half of this structure (Fig. 100) 
was moved to another part of the property, reconfigured and 
was tennanted by the teacher of the neighboring Quaker 
school. ^^^ Matlack repeats this account and included a 
picture of the structure in one of his scrap books. ^^^ 
Thomas Woody in his book, Quaker Education in New Jersey, 
included a picture of what appears to be the same building 
and captioned it "The Master's Dwelling, A Part of Old 
Springfield School Property . "^^^ The same account of the 
moving of a portion of the old meeting house was once again 
retold in a pamphlet entitled "Friends in South-Central New 
Jersey for over 300 years observe the Tricentennial . " This 
work was dated 1964 and stated that the relocated portion of 
the old meeting house still stood at that date, although 
this author has not been able to determine if this is still 
the case. The newer structure (Figures 101 and 102), built 
in 1812 as indicated by its date stone, is a large and 



77. 



^^^ Woodward, 356, and Matlack, 180. 

^^^ Woodward, 356. 

227 Matlack, 180-181 . 

22^ Thomas Woody. Quaker Education in New Jersey (1923), 



176 



;*n T"tn Ti «— 11 ■! 




Figure 100 

Old Mansfield Meeting House 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 




177 



i^igure 1 01 

Mansfield Meeting House, 

street facade, 

luthor ' s photo 



Figure 102 

Mansfield Meeting House, 

rear, 

author' s photo 





BBBOB 

Figure 103 

Mansfield Orthodox Meeting House, 
T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



Figure 104 

Mansfield Orthodox Meeting House 

author's photo 




179 
prominent brick structure located about one mile north of 
Columbus on Route 206.^^^ 

Mansfield (Orthodox) 

Mansfield Orthodox Friends constructed a meeting house 
(Fig. 103) directly next to the building in which they had 
previously worshiped. The date of this meeting house is 
generally given as that of the schism, but this is probably 
little more than a guess. This structure has since been 
converted into a dwelling (Fig. 104). 

Mount Holly (Bridgetown) 

The Mount Holly Meeting was organized in 1687 but did 

not receive the benefits of a meeting house until 1716.^^° 

"Whereas there was one little meeting kept at two 
places, one at Restore Lippincotts, and one at 
Daniel Wills, which hath been held for a 
considerable time, but now there is a meeting- 
house built at Mount Holly for to accommodate 
those two meetings, and those belonging to those 
meetings desire to be removed to the said meeting 
house, which is approved and allowed of by said 
meeting. "2^^ 

This structure was apparently located on the north side 

of Wood Lane at the western end of the surviving Quaker 



229 "F];iends in South Central New Jersey," pamphlet. 

^^° Michner, 41 . 

^^^ Burlington Monthly, first month, fifth, 1716 see 
also 2nd day, 11th mo. 1715. 



180 
burial ground. ^^^ Although Woodward's History of Burlington 
County claimed the meeting house to have been a frame 
structure, it is more likely that George DeCou's belief that 
it was brick, enunciated, in Historical Sketches of Mount 
Holly and Vicinity (1935), was correct. ^■^^ 

In 1762, Mount Holly Friends requested the liberty of 
building a meeting house in "the said town."^^^ In other 
words more proximal than the old meeting house to the center 
of the rising population of the town of Mount Holly itself. 
The issue of building another meeting house in Mount Holly 
proper was brought before the Burlington Monthly Meeting 6th 
day of 12th month 1763. On the 4th day of the forth month, 
in that same year. Mount Holly Friends were given permission 
to "build a meeting house in town."^^^ The meeting house 
was constructed by 1763.^^^ Known as the "little meeting 
house," this building was located "seventy-seven feet north 
of Mill Street'" and was reached by a "line" called Meeting 
House Alley on the western side of the brick house formerly 
numbered 47 and then later part of a lot on which an Acme 



^^^ George DeCou . The Historic Rancocas (Moorestown: New 
Chronicle, 1949), 87. 

^^•^ Woodward, 188, and George DeCou, Historical Sketches 
of Mount Holly and Vicinity (Mount Holly: DeCou, reprint 
from Mount Holly Herald), 87. 



2^"* Burlington Monthly, 3rd of 5th mo. 1762 

235 

1763. 



^^^ Ibid., 6th day of 12th month 1763 and 4th day of 4th 



236 



Ibid., 4th of 4th mo. 1763. 



181 

was constructed . ^^^ The new meeting house seems to have 

been better located to the point of view of town residents, 

but less so to others. DeCou spoke about the advantages of 

the siting of the older meeting house. It was, "near the 

junction of the old roads leading to Burlington and to 

Jacksonville and directly on Woodpecker Lane Road leading 

westerly to the Friends' Meeting House near Rancocas which 

at that time stood at the northern end of the cemetery on 

the Centerton Road."^-^^ The Burlington Monthly Meeting 

required that the older meeting house be retained. One of 

the reasons given was that it sat on the site of the burial 

ground and was therefore advantageous for holding services 

in after burials. ^^^ Another reason is that its location 

was more advantageous to travelers and to rural Friends. 

At a Burlington Monthly Meeting held 7th 5th mo. 1770, 

"the request of friends at Mount Holly to hold 
their Week day meeting in the town in future was 
now taken under consideration and after 
deliberating thereon, it was concluded most of the 
benefit of friends there in General, that said 
request is granted, only at such times when 
strangers visit them it is understood that the 
meeting shall be held at the meeting house out of 
town when first day notice of such a visit is 
given. "24° 

In 1775, in anticipation of the establishment of the 



237 



DeCou, Historic Rancocas, 98-99. 



238 Ibid. 

23^ Burlington Monthly, Fourth of fourth, 1762 
2''° Ibid. , 7th, 5 mo. 1770. 



182 

Mount Holly Monthly Meeting, Friends of that town 

constructed a third, larger brick meeting house (Figs. 105 

and 105). This building was erected on a lot of land located 

at the south east corner of High and Garden Streets. ^^^ 

Then there was the guestion of what was to be done with 

the two older buildings. The following minutes reveal the 

fate of the 1716 meeting house. 

"At Mount Holly Monthly Meeting the 8th of 7th 
month, 1778. Requests from the Mount Holly 
Preparative, this meeting appoints Henry Burr, 
John Ridgeway, Edward Black, Job Stockton, Joseph 
Lamb, Aaron Barton and Samuel Shinn to consider 
that had best be done with the old meeting house 
out of town and report their judgement to next 
meeting . "^'^^ 

Mount Holly Monthly Meeting, 4th mo 11th, 1778, 

"One of the friends who had the old meeting house 
under care reported that they had met and that it 
seemed best to them that for the present the house 
should remain as it now is excepting that the 
Doors and Windows ought to be done up with rough 
boards, to which the meeting concents ... "^*'^ 

Permission was given by the Burlington Monthly Meeting 

in 1780 for the Mount Holly Friends to use the materials of 

one of the two meeting houses as their portion of a 



Deed, John Brainard and Elizabeth Brainard to John 
Comfort, Daniel Doughty Smith, Samuel Shinn, Samuel 
Allisson, Peter Ellis, Edward Black and John Hilter, first 
day of January, 1775 (Friends Historical Library, Swarthmore 
College, Swarthmore, PA). 

^''^ Minutes of the Mount Holly Monthly Meeting (Friends 
Historical Library, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA), 8th 
of 7th mo. 1778. 

^'^^ Ibid., 4th mo. 11th, 1778. 




Figure 105 

Mount Holly Meeting House 

main facade 

author' s photo 



Figure 106, 

Mount Holly Meeting House 

rear 

author's photo 




184 

quota. ^^^ Eventually the other meeting house was 

transferred into the possesion of Peter Shiras who, on May 

25th, 1804, sold it to Joseph Cooper. ^^^ 

The 1775 meeting house is that structure which, 

although greatly altered, survives today. The greatest 

alterations were made in 1850 and are documented in a letter 

from Mount Holly Friends directed to the Burlington 

Quarterly Meeting. 

"The committees appointed by Burlington Quarterly 
and Mount Holly Preparative Meetings to take into 
consideration the propriety of making some 
alterations in Friends Meeting House at Mount 
Holly - for the better accommodation of the 
quarterly meeting - having all met (except one 
from each committee) and conferred together on the 
subject agree to report- That the probable expense 
of raising the walls six feet higher and putting 
in galleries on the south side of the building 
sufficient to contain about 250 persons would be 
from $1400 to $1600. "^^^ 

An article in the Burlington County Herald dated May 8, 

1975, stated that Friends established a Friends' school in 

the western end of the building in 1893. The west end of the 

building was remodeled in 1919 and that at a later date the 

galleries in the eastern portion of the building were 



2'*" Ibid., sixth Month, 1780. 

^'^^ George DeCou . Historic Rancocas, Sketches of the 
Town and Pioneer Settlers in Rancocas Valley (Moorestown: 
New Chronicle, 1949), 94, quoting deed recorded in Deed Book 
V, p 491. Burlington County Clerks office. 

^'^^ Letter, Israel Stokes, George Ford, Nathan W. Black 
and Samuel Ellis to Burlington Quarterly Meeting of Friends, 
4mo, 26th, 1850. Misc. papers, Burlington Hicksite Monthly 
Meeting, 1842-1871 (Friends Historical Library, Swarthmore 
College, Swarthmore, PA). 



185 
leveled and floored over.^*^ 

Mount Holly (Orthodox) 

The small wooden Orthodox Meeting House (Fig. 107) was 
erected in 1832. It was located on Buttonwood Street, 
between Brainard and Garden Streets. The building, 
constructed by Stacey Atkinson, was converted several times 
to new uses, in one case a school (Fig. 108), but has since 
been demolished . ^'*^ 

Old Springfield (Copany) 

The first Old Springfield Meeting House was constructed 
by Francis Collings on the "hither side of the Mattacopany 
bridge." Permission for the construction of the building at 
that site was given in 1694.^^^ A Burlington Monthly minute 
dated "Ye 8th of ye 3d mo. 1699" suggests that the brick 
building was completed in the summer of 1599.^^° An 
earlier minute, 3d of ye 11th month 1697, gives the 
building's measurments as 20 foot long by 20 foot wide.^^^ 



^^'' (Untitled Article) Burlington County Herald, May 8, 
1975, Pamphlet Group 1, Mount Holly Monthly Meeting (Friends 
Historical Library, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA). 

^''^ Woodward, 189. 

^"^ Burlington Monthly, 4th of 12th mo. 1691 and 8th of 
3rd mo. 1699. 

2^° Ibid., 8th 3rd mo. 1699. 

2^^ Ibid., 3rd of ye 11 mo 1697. 




186 



figure 1 07 

^ount Holly Orthodox Meeting House 
r. Chalkey Matlack Collection 
iistorical Society of Pennsylvania 



Figure 108 

Mount Holly Orthodox Meeting House 
T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 
Historical Society Of Pennsylvania 




187 

In 1775, 

"A Friend from Old Springfield informed the 
Meeting (Burlington Monthly) that they had 
thoughts of Rebuilding their meeting house if this 
meeting has no objections which being considered 
they are left at liberty to perform the work in a 
becoming manner." ^^^ 

The result, constructed on an enlarged lot, was the 

substantial brick structure (Fig. 109) which survives 

today. ^^'^ This meeting house passed out of the ownership of 

Friends in the 1950's and is now a private residence (Fig. 

110) located at 1832 Jacksonville-Jobstown Rd . , about one 

half mile east of Jacksonville. 

Rancocas (Ancocas) 

The Rancocas Friends Meeting was established in 

1681.^^'' The work on the first Rancocas Meeting House 

began in 1702 and was completed in 1703. 

"Ye 6th of Ye 5th mo. 1702, John Wills in behalf 
of ye major part of ye frds belonging to Rancocas 
Meeting made a proposal before this meeting of ye 
building of a meeting house for themselves by 
their burying ground, desiring ye councel of this 
meeting and this meeting leaves them to their 
liberty to proceede . "^^^ 

"Ye 4th of 11th mo. 1702, John Wills proposed to 
this meeting concerning ye ordering and letting of 
ye meeting house to workmen of Ancocas, this 



^^^ Ibid., 6th Of 2nd mo, 1775. 

2" Ibid., 7th mo. 3rd 1775 

2^"* Ibid., 7th 1 mon, 1681 and 2nd 3rd mo. 1681. 

2^^ Ibid., 6th of 5th mo. 1702. 




Figure 109 

Copany Meeting House 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



Figure 110 

Copany Meeting House 

author's photo 




189 

meeting leaving it to ye neighboring Friends that 
live near ye place the dementions being spoken to 
at this meeting to be 30 feet long oute to oute 
and 22 feet wide from oute to oute and 12 foot in 
hight on ye wall."^^^ 

"7th of ye 12th mo., 1703... Jon. Wills reports to 

this meeting house at Northampton is fit to meet 
in... "257 

DeCou, in Historical Sketches of Rancocas and 

Neighborhood, quoted a statement by Samuel Wills of Rancocas 

preserved in the "Wills family records." 

"Samuel Wills born in 1765, has left a record that 
he could distinctly remember going to the old 
building when a small boy. He also recalled that 
there was a large fireplace in the southwest 
corner near which the mothers sat with their 
children in extreme weather. "^^^ 

In 1772, as proposal was made by Friends of Ancocas, to 

the Burlington Monthly Meeting to build a new meeting house, 

as their old meeting house, located at the northern end of 

the cemetery on Bridge Street, had "grown old and they think 

not convieniently situate. "^^^ The Burlington Monthly 

agreed finding the 1703 meeting house "old and unsafe. "^^^ 

The present meeting house (Figs. Ill, 112 and 113) was then 



2^^ Ibid., 4th of 11th mo. 1702. 

2" Ibid., 7th of ye 12th mo. 1703. 

2^^ George DeCou . Woolman-Land : Historic Sketches of 
Rancocas and Neighborhood (DeCou, 1937, reprinted from Mount 
Holly Herald), 14, quoting records compiled by Joseph W, . 
Lippincott about 1880 then in the possesion of Mrs. Joseph 
H. Roberts of Moorestown. 

2^^ Burlington Monthly, 2nd mo 1 1772, and DeCou, 
Historic Rancocas , 13. 

2^° Burlington Monthly, 6mo. 1, 1772. 



190 
erected on the north side of Main Street, east of Bridge 
Street. The date 1772 is displayed prominently in ornamental 
brickwork on the southern wall of the building. At some 
later date, this building, like the Greenwich Orthodox 
Meeting House, was enlarged without the creation of paper 
evidence. The most logical date of the addition would have 
been that of the holding of the first monthly meetings at 
Rancocas, which occurred after the Hicksite separation when 
the Orthodox Burlington Quakers held their monthly meeting 
here. This date, however, would seem to be slightly 
late for the composition which is of a type one would expect 
in the late eighteenth century. 

Stony Brook 

From John F. Hageman's "History of Mercer County, N.J." 

in Woodward and Hageman's History of Burlington and Mercer 

Counties , 

"June 1, 1709, Benjamin Clark conveyed by deed 
nine acres and sixty hundreths of an acre of land, 
on the northeasterly side of Stony Brook to 
Richard Stockton and others in trust to build a 
meeting-house on it, and for a burying-ground for 
the Society of Friends. 



m261 



Hageman stated that the 1709 meeting house was a small 
frame building that remained in use until the year 1760.^^^ 



^^^ Major E.M. Woodward and John F. Hageman. History of 
Burlington and Mercer Counties, New Jersey, with 
Biographical Sketches (Phila. : Everet and Peck, 1883), 610. 

2^2 Ibid. , 610. 




191 



Figure 1 1 1 

Rancocas Meeting House, 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection, 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



Figure 112 

Rancocas Meeting House, rear 

author's photo 





192 





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stony Brook Meeting House 
author's photo 



Figure 1 1 5 

Stony Brook Meeting House 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 




194 
The Chesterfield Monthly Meeting records dispute this as 
they state that the meeting, in 1724, gave permission for a 
meeting house to, "be built of stone, thirty four feet long 
and thirty feet wide, and finished, so as to render it 
useful. . ."^" 

The present meeting house (Figs. 114 and 115) is 
believed to have been constructed at a cost of £238 and 5 
shillings in 1760 on the foundation of the 1724 structure 
which had burned in 1759.^^^ It is located at the Corner of 
Quaker Road and Mercer Street a short distance west of the 
town of Princeton. 

Trenton 

"At a Monthly Meeting of Friends held at their 
meeting house in Chesterfield the 2nd of the 1 mo. 
1737/8. This meeting appoints Joseph Reckless to 
draw a Deed for land for a meeting house and 
graveyard at Trenton to be conveyed to Benjamin 
Smith, Stacy Beakes, William Flasket, Joseph 
Decou, Nathan Beakes and Isaac Watson, this 
meeting appoints John Tantum & Benja' Smith to 
have the oversight of the affair." 

An important history of of the Trenton Friend's Meeting 

House (Figs. 116 and 117) was given by Isaac Stephens (1810- 

1891) in an untitled article he wrote for the Friends 

Intelligencer in 1872. 



2" Chesterfield Monthly, 3rd second Month 1725. 

^^'* Joseph Middleton. "Stony Brook Meeting Near 
Princeton N.J." The Friend, 87, 2nd mo. 1914, 389-390. 

^^^ Chesterfield Monthly, 2nd of the 1 mo. 1737/8. 



195 

"The Meeting House of Friends at Hanover and 
Montgomery Street in the City of Trenton, N.J. 
having lately been rebuilt and greatly improved, a 
few facts connected with its history, are by the 
writer deemed worthy of notice in the 
Intelligencer: In Doctor Michener's Retrospective 
of Early Quakerism from the records of Burlington 
Quarterly and Chesterfield Monthly Meetings, it 
appears that the meeting at Trenton was "settled 
in the year, 1740." This agrees with the date 
(1739) placed with blue glazed bricks in one end 
of the house, and well remembered by some of us 
who were school boys here from 1820-1830. About 
the year 1840 the house was considerably changed 
and rough-cast on the outside. The recent 
improvements have been very thorough, and we think 
the house has some features worthy the attention 
of Friends who may wish to make their Meeting 
Houses more comfortable. We have now a roomy 
vestibule entrance, where Friends can exchange 
salutations, dry their feet before meeting, or 
find their company to leave for home, and a 
stairway leading from this vestibule to a well 
arranged monthly meeting room above, which by 
sliding shutters can be thrown in connection with 
the house below... The traditional open back 
benches have been discarded for close back seats, 
which are together with the wood work of the 
house, painted and the floor carpeted. Altogether, 
it is a meeting house neat and plain, but not so 
widely different from our own homes as to show an 
unpleasant contrast. There is also a peculiar 
satisfaction in knowing that within these same 
walls we have heard a Thomas Weatherall, a Richard 
Burdsall, and a Maria Imlay, give forth the most 
attentive listeners words of wisdom, and truth. 
These other beautiful spirits from amongst us, 
have passed on to the 'better land.'" 



Isaac Stephens 

Trenton, N.J. 8th mo. 13th 1872 



266 



^^^ (Untitled Article) Friends Intelligencer, Vol. XXIX, 
No. 26, eighth month 24, 1872, 406-407. 



.■^»3iB«;-.-^«.. 




196 



Figure 1 1 6 

Trenton Meeting House, 

before remodelling, 

Collection of Trenton Friends Meeting 



Figure 1 1 7 

Trenton Meeting House 

main facade 

author' s photo 




197 
Trenton (Orthodox) 

Trenton Orthodox Friends first held meetings in a 
former Methodist Church that was located on the northeast 
corner of Greene and Hadmey Streets. ^^^ In 1855 as marked 
by the building's date stone, the Trenton Orthodox Meeting 
erected the small brick meeting house (Fig. 118) at 155 
Mercer Street. The building is now the Mercer Street 
Friend's Center. 

Upper Freehold (Woodward's Meeting, Arney Town, Ellisdale) 

Matlack states that this meeting was first established 
in 1740.^^^ "The meeting house, a frame structure on a 
stone foundation, disappeared upwards of fifty years or 
more."^^^ He visited the site of the meeting on the 3rd of 
May in 1931 with Asa M. Smith of Moorestown, N.J. and 
reported that at that time the foundation and some brick and 
stone rubble remained. He stated that the wood along with 
slate from the meeting house roof had been scavenged for 
reuse in the construction of nearby farm buildings. 
According to Matlack, a school house (Fig. 119), now moved 
to a location about a mile east of Ellisdale on Ellisdale 
Rd . , and reconfigured as a residence, was also used for 
Quaker meetings. This building was said to have been erected 



Matlack, 198. 
Matlack, 200. 
Ibid. , 201 . 




Figure 118 

Trenton Orthodox Meeting House 

author's photo 



Figure 119 

Ellisdale School House 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 




199 
in 1812.27° 

Upper Springfield 

Permission was given by the Burlington Quarterly 
Meeting in 1726 for Friends in the "Upper part of 
Springfield, Mansfield and Chesterfield" to have liberty "to 
proceed in building a new meeting house near William 
Earle."^^^ 

No alterations are known to have been made until 1782 
when permission was given by the Burlington Quarterly 
Meeting to enlarge the Upper Springfield Meeting House 
(Figs. 120 and 121); work was nearly completed by 2nd mo. 
1783.2^2 

The fate of this building is best given in a plea found 

in the Friends Intelligencer in 1910, 

"This is a picture of Upper Springfield Meeting 
House, built in 1727, enlarged in 1823 (incorrect 
see above), and burned down in Eighth month, 1909, 
through the carelessness of a man in burning 
brushand weeds in the adjoining graveyard, when 
owing to a high wind, the flames caught on the 
horse sheds, thence to the Meeting House. 

We have been unable so far to secure any 
assistance from the "Jeanes Fund for Meeting House 
Purposes," but this has not deterred us from 



2''° Matlack, 200, and Franklin Ellis, History of 
Monmouth County ( Phialdelphia : R.T. Peck & Co., 1885), 632, 
and Thomas Gordon. A Gazateer of New Jersey (Trenton: 
Fenton, 1834) . Gordon states that at Arneystown there 
was a "Large Meeting House pertaining to Friends." 

27^ Burlington Quarterly, 20th 12th mo 1726. 

272 Ibid., 27th 5th mo 1782 and 24th 2nd mo. 1783. 



200 

trying to do what we could for ourselves. There 
are only a few Friends in that locality, but the 
old meeting house has ever been held in high 
regard by the people of the neighborhood, and as 
the meeting is unable to rebuild without 
assistance, a number of generous people (most of 
them not Friends, but who wish to see the house 
rebuilt) have given us valuable help and the 
building is partly completed, but not sufficient 
money has yet been contributed for the payment of 
it. So we send this brief notice to the 
intelligencer, hoping some generous Friends may 
read it and help us. Contributions may be sent to 

Martha E. Gibbs 
Clerk of Upper Springfield Monthly Meeting, 
Columbus, N.J. "2^^ 



A follow up notice dated eighth month, 12, 1911 noted 
that, "We have news of interest from Upper Springfield, N.J. 
where a new meeting house was built this year to replace the 
old house built in 1727 and burnt in 1909. "^^"^ 

On the subject of the rebuilding DeCou states, in his 

Historical Sketches of Mount Holly and The Vicinity, that 

"The present building measures a little over forty 
feet in length, and, as already stated, is not so 
long as the meeting house was prior to the fire, 
the western end not having been rebuilt. The house 
as it now stands is undoubtably the oldest part 
which was erected in 1727. A careful comparison of 
the illustrations of the meeting house past and 
present shows that the date stone is in exactly 
the same position as it was in the old building. 
It fell out at the time of the fire but was 
carefully preserved by Herman Croshaw, of 
Wrightstown, who personally saw it restored to its 
original position. The present building is not as 
high as it was before the fire and without 



^^^ (Untitled Article) Friend's Intelligencer, Volume 
LXVII Number 53, Twelfth Month 31, 1910, 805. 

^^'^ Ibid., 8th month 12 1911. 




201 



Figure 120 

Upper Springfield Meeting House 
T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



Figure 1 2 1 

Upper Springfield Meeting House 

west wall 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society Of Pennsylvania 




202 

question more closely resembling the building 
aserected in 1727... The house now standing, with 
the exception of the roof, doorway, windows, etc. 
is literally the original building, as the eastern 
wall was intact after the fire and the northern 
and southern walls were repaired with the original 
bricks. The western end of the present building, 
although of course a new wall, was also built from 
the old bricks. "^^^ 

The building (Fig. 122), located at the intersection of 

Springfield Meeting House Road and Highland Rd . in 

Springfield Township, has since been converted into a 

private residence and as such is presently in use. 




Figure 122 

Upper Springfield Meeting House 

author's photo 



272 



DeCou, Historical Sketches of Mount Holly. .. , 5 



203 
Vincentown 

5th mo. 8th, 1782, 

"The Friends of Vincentown Meeting request Liberty 
of holding their meetings as usual the ensuing 
year, which this meeting unites with, and the same 
friends request leave to build a meeting house on 
a lot of land near Vincentown which was given for 
that purpose, as soon as they conveniently can 
which this meeting agrees to."^^^ 

George DeCou states that this structure was a frame 

building. ^^^ Woodward's History of Burlington County, N.J. 

states that the building was constructed of logs.^^^ In 

either case, this building was replaced in 1813 with a brick 

building (Fig. 123). At the date of the publication of 

Woodward's History of Burlington County, (1883) the meeting 

house was occupied as a dwelling . ^''^ The building was 

renovated in 1910 with much modification (Fig. 124). Its 

walls were buttressed and incorporated into a larger two 

story structure built by Vincentown Grange No. 57. This 

building is located on the east side of Main St just south 

of Grange St. The 1812 date stone is still visible. 



^^^ Burlington Monthly, 5th mo. 8th, 1782. The deed to 
this lot dated 12th day. Seventh Month 1781, Anna Leeds, 
executor of Vincent Leeds to Samuel Hilter, William Bisher, 
Hudson Burr, John White and Isaac Barton is preserved in 
Mount Holly Monthly Meeting Papers Misc (Friends Historical 
Library, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA). 

^" DeCou, Historic Rancocas, 98. 

2^^ Woodward, 426. 

2^5 Ibid. 




204 



igure 123 

incentown Meeting House 

. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

istorical Society of Pennsylvania 



Figure 124 

Vincentown Grange Building 

author's photo 




205 

Meeting Houses of the Haddonfield Quarterly Meeting 

Atlantic City (Orthodox) 

This meeting was established relatively recently, in 
1872. Its first home, located at the intersection of Pacific 
and South Carolina Avenues, was a frame building (Fig. 125) 
demolished in 1926 and replaced with a large brick structure 
on the same site (Fig. 126). This large building contained 
both a school and meeting space. The meeting space was 
located in that part of the building that faced Pacific 
Avenue . ^^° 

Bakersville 

This meeting house was located north of that at 
Sommer's Point in Linwood. The structure stood, off Roue 586 
(Shore Road), across from the Central Methodist Church in a 
lot of ground presently a cemetery. ^^^ The building is 
believed to have been constructed about 1730 and was in use 
after the meeting house at Sommer's Point was sold.^^^ 
Richard Sommer's place is no longer listed as one of the 
alternating sites of the Great Egg Harbor Monthly Meeting 



2^° Matlack, 403. 

^®^ Salem Quarter, 340. 

282 



Ibid., 340 




206 



figure 1 25 

\tlantic City Orthodox Meeting House 
r. Chalkey Matlack Collection 
^istorical Society of Pennsylvania 



Figure 1 26 

Atlantic City Orthodox Meeting House 
T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania 







207 

after 5th day of ye 9th mo 1739.2^^ 

Cropwell 

The meeting at Cropwell was probably founded in 1786; 

its first meetings were held in a Friend's school house 

administrated by the Evesham Preparative Meeting. ^^'^ The 

Cropwell Preparative Meeting was established in 1794 and 

Cropwell Friends announced their intention to build a 

meeting house to the Evesham Monthly Meeting in 1800.^^^ 

Members of the Cropwell Meeting disagreed about the siting 

of the meeting and work was delayed until that issue was 

resolved. ^^^ Finally, in 1805 building plans were fixed. 

"The Committee appointed to take the matter into 
view and digest a suitable plan for a house also 
reported that we do give it as our opinion that in 
order to have a suitable accommodation it will be 
necessary to build a house about thirty-six feet 
wide and fifty feet long and extend the story 
about thirteen feet high with a sliding petition 
through the centre thereof but without upper 
galleries which will give sufficient room on the 
floor for thirteen benches ten feet long on one 
side of a gang way three and a half feet wide 
through the long way of the house, opposite 
windows in the front of the house, four windows in 
the back and one in each end to contain twenty 



^^^ Minutes of the Great Egg Harbor Monthly (Friends 
Historical Library, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA), 5th 
day of ye 9th mo. 1739. 

2^"^ Michner, 22. 

^^^ Minutes of the Evesham Monthly Meeting (Friends 
Historical Library, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA), 8th 
day, 3mo, 1794 and 6 day 12 month 1800. 

2^^ Ibid., 6th day 12 month 1800. 



208 




Figure 1 27 

Cropwell Meeting House 

author's photo 



209 

four lights each, agreeable to a draft thereof 
which we have prepared and from the best 
information we can obtain we apprehend such a 
house will cost about eight hundred pounds, all of 
which we submit to the meeting. "^^^ 

The meeting house (Fig. 127) was completed in 1809.^®^ 

An account of the building expenses was recorded and is 

recited here. 

"An account of the expenses of Cropwell Meeting 
House, 35 feet by 50, story 14 feet high, sealed 
with half inch cedar boards, wainscotted with 
white pine about 5 feet from the floor and the 
remainder of the wall plastered, a double pannel 
sliding partition 

48350 Bricks at the Kiln at 4 Dol . per hun . 193.50 

2 acres of land at 106.66 

30 perch of stone in the ground 15. 

9760 feet scantling at 16 dol. 142.19 

wood to burn the brick 57.88 

white pine boards 79. 

carpenter work 422.31 

mason work 137.54 1/2 

attendance on mason charged 8.56 

sundry bills 97.71 

plank for benches 48.60 

cedar & pine boards and 1/2 inch oak under the 

floor 175.35 



^^■^ William H. Zelley. Cropwell Friends Meeting House, 
1809-1959 (Marlton, N.J., 1959), 19-20, quoting Cropwell 
Preparative Meeting Minutes dated 3rd mo. 1st, 1805. 

^^^ Ibid., quoting Cropwell Preparative Meeting, 31st 
1st 1809. 



210 

shingles 115.10 
scaffold poles, etc. 5.12 1/2 

hailing water and provision at raising 7.66 

lime at 3 dollars 7 cents at landing 42.31 
paint and oil 7.67 

sundry of labour 15.38 

hailing 42 load of sand 10.50 

pine scantiling for window frames, etc. 21.50 
flooring 7.13 

stoves and pipes 50.33 



1767.21 



N.B.- The raising stone, hailing the same, brick 
from J. L. Lippincott's to Meeting House, hailing 
lime and some of the sand, all the boards, digging 
out foundation, all the attention & 
superintendance done without charge. The floor was 
laid double, the under 1/2 inch chestnut oak, the 
upper heart pine square edged, a true account 
taken from the clerk of the meeting of the 
manager's book. 

By John Evans 
3. mo. 26. 1835"2S^ 



Easton 

In 1803, a Quaker Meeting was formed in Easton that met 
in a school house. ^^° A preparative meeting was established 
in the year 1810 and according to its date stone, the Easton 
Meeting House was constructed the following year. The 



^^^ Ibid., 18-19, taken from a document in private hands 
in 1959. 

25° Matlack, 410. 



211 

meeting house (Fig. 128) is located one and one half miles 
southeast of Masonville, on Fostertown Road, in Luberton 
Township and is presently used by the Easton Union 
Church. ^^^ 

Evesham 

The Evesham Friend's meeting was in existence at least 
as early as 1694 and held in the house of William Evans. ^^^ 
Permission to construct a meeting house was not granted by 
the Burlington Monthly Meeting until 1698. Haddonfield 
Monthly minutes mention a meeting house as being in 
existence in 1718.^^-^ It is said that this earliest of 
Evesham Meeting Houses was a log structure. 

The minutes noting the decision to build the present 
meeting house makes mention of an earlier structure. 

"...after fully said confrence + spirit of 
brotherly love + consideration prevailing it was 
unanimously agreed that as our meeting house is in 
a shattered condition, it will be best to rebuild 
it, in or near the same place where it now stands, 
in a more convenient manner ... "^^* 



2^^ Ibid., 409-410 
292 Derry, 48. 



252 Haddonfield Monthly, 2nd month 14th day 1718; Derry, 
48, and Matlack, 41 1 . 

25^ Minutes of the Evesham Preparative Meeting (Friends 
Historical Library, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA), 6th 
day of 3 month 1760. 



212 




Figure 128 

Easton Meeting House 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



213 
In 1760, both a preparative and a monthly meeting were 
established at Evesham and to house them a new stone meeting 
house was built (Fig. 129, 130 and 131). This building was 
completed about 1762.^^^ It survives as the eastern end of 
the present meeting house. ^^^ The meeting house was 
enlarged in 1798.^^^ With the Hicksite separation, the two 
groups shared this meeting house holding meeting on opposite 
sides of the partition. Orthodox Friends occupied the 
eastern section of the building. ^^^ 

Galloway (Leeds Point) 

Meetings were first held in the vicinity of Leed's 
Point in 1683.^^^ The date of the construction of the first 
Galloway Meeting House is uncertain. The graveyard of the 
present day Emmaus Methodist Church (corner of Moss Hill 
Road and Route 9, across from the village of Smithville) was 
the site of a meeting house. ^°° A second meeting house 
(Figs. 132 and 133) may have been located further down Moss 
Mill Road, "nearly across from the house of Mr. Fred Higbee 



255 Ibid., 9th mo. 2nd, 1762. 

25^ Derry, 48-49, and Matlack, 411 

25^ Matlack, 411 . 

25^ Derry, 51 . 

255 Salem Quarter, 340. 

3°° Matlack, 414. 



214 




Figure 129 

Evesham Meeting House 

T, Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



215 




Figure 130 

Evesham Meeting House 

West Wall 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



Figure 1 31 

Evesham Meeting House 

rear 

author's photo 




216 



(1929) ."301 



"I will do my best to tell you what I can about 
the friends meeting house. I myself cannot 
remember anything of it but I have heard the old 
folks speak of it. I have inquired of the old 
folks around here what they could remember of it 
or knew. I find two old ladies who said they had 
attended meetings there when they were young girls 
and as near as I could find out there had been no 
meetings in the meeting house for around 50 years, 
as it has been made a dwelling for around 55 
years. The back part of the house was the meeting 
house and the front part built later. "^^^ 

The meeting house was converted to a store and dwelling 

house, the rear portion of the building being the original 

meeting house and the front an addition added in 1874 three 

years after meetings ceased, "^^^ then, in 1929, the home of 

Absolom Higbee."^°'' Matlack gives the date of this building 

as 1744 "in accordance with meeting records. "3°^ 

There is no proof that notation found in the meeting 

records refers to this building and not the one that stood 

further west in the graveyard of the Methodist Church. On 

visiting the residence of Mr. Absolom Higbee in 1929 T. 

Chalkey Matlack stated that, 



3°^ Matlack, 414. 

3°^ Fred Higbee to T. Chalkey Matlack, May 27, 1929. (T. 
Chalkey Matlack Collection, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania ) . 

3°^ Matlack, 415. 

2°^ Ibid. 

•^°^ Salem Quarter, 340, quoting a Little Egg Harbor 
Monthly Meeting Minute dated fourth day, ninth month, 1744. 



217 




Figure 1 32 

possible meeting house, Lead's Point 

street facade 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



Figure 1 33 

possible meeting house, Leed's Point 

rear section 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 




218 

"the weather boarding attests to the uncertain age 
of the structure, for the boards are irregular in 
their width and all are wider than those used 
during the last fifty years or more of the 

eighteenth century . "-^^^ 

This building burned to the ground on May 10, 1932.'^°^ 



Haddonf ield 

The first meeting house in Haddonfield was constructed 

in 1721 on land given by John Estaugh. 

"At said meeting report is made by the persons 
appointed to gett subscriptions for the erecting 
the new meeting house that there is subscribed In 
order to gett the sum of one hund & one pounds + 
ten shillings, and that said persons are desired 
to gather the money and that John Mains, Thomas 
Sharp & Joseph Cooper Jun is appointed to agree 
with a workman for building the same forty foot 
long + twenty foot wide twelve foot post, shingled 
on ye outside a gallery at each end ten foot one 
twelve foot ye other to accommodate the women's 
meeting to be lined back high with bord lathed & 
plastered the other part and the house if possible 
be finished by the last end of the seventh month 
next. "3°^ 

Construction on the building apparently lasted a 

considerable period of time as Haddonfield Monthly minutes 

dated 12 day 9th mo. 1725 recorded that Constantine Wood 

made a payment of three pounds on behalf of Friends of 

Woodbury Creek towards the finishing of the Haddonfield 



^°^ Matlack, 415. 

^°^ Matlack, 415, quoting correspondence with Richard D. 
Longsworth, Real Estate Adjuster, Camden County, N.J. dated 
September 2nd, 1938. 

^°^ Minutes of the Newton and Haddonfield Monthly 
Meeting (Friends Historical Library, Swarthmore College, 
Swarthmore, PA), 8th day, 3rd month, 1721. 



219 

Meeting House. -^"^ The building was located on Haddon Avenue 
near King's Highway on land today occupied by a 
f irehouse.^^° This building served until 1760 when a large 
brick meeting house was erected on the site of the old 
meeting house (Fig. 134).^" The old meeting house was then 
moved across the street and used as a horse shed for the new 
meeting house. ^^^ The brick meeting house was demolished in 
1851, the old bricks were supposedly reused in a wall that 
surrounded the Quaker cemetery . ^^-^ 

Haddonfield (Orthodox) 

Haddonfield Quakers both Hicksite and Orthodox 
worshipped on opposite sides of the Old Haddonfield Meeting 



2°^ Haddonfield Monthly, 12 day, 9th mo. 1725. 

•^^° Derry, 320. Derry is probably quoting, "This is 
Haddonfield." Matlack does not recognize this incarnation of 
the Haddonfield Meeting House, believing the following brick 
structure to be the elder. 

^^^ Derry states that new meeting house was constructed 
across the street from the old. Monthly meeting records 
dated the 18th Of the third month, 1760, give the 
Haddonfield meeting permission to move the old house so they 
could build the new one on the old lot. 



^^^ Derry, 321 . 

^^^ Derry states that the old meeting house was 
demolished by fire one suspected to be arson. In fact the 
meeting records state clearly that the Orthodox Friends tore 
down the old building after constructing a new structure. 
Minutes of the Haddonfield Orthodox Preparative Meeting 
(Friends Historical Library, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, 
PA), 5mo, 29, 1851, and Derry, 322. 



220 




Figure 1 34 

Haddonfield Meeting House 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



221 

House until its demise in 1851.^^^ At that time, the 
Orthodox Quakers constructed a new meeting house (Figs. 135 
and 136) at the corner of what is today Friends Avenue and 
Lake Street. Haddonfield Quakers, Orthodox and Hicksite, 
reunited in 1952 and chose to retain this meeting house. In 
1956, additions were added to house a day school and first 
day school. ^^^ 

Haddonfield (Hicksite) 

In 1851, Haddonfield Hicksite Quakers purchased land at 

Ellis and Walnut Street. '^^^ There, they constructed a 

meeting house, one traditional in form and very similar to 

that of their Orthodox counterparts (Figs. 137 and 138). The 

building had 

"two windows in the rear, back of the facing 
benches or minister's Galleries, and plenty of 
others at the front and ends, two small covered 
poarches in the front and one at either end. 
Closing shutters divide the assembly-room in two 
equal parts, one side being for women friends in 
the days of the past, the other for the male 
members until the congregation in later years so 
reduced in numbers as to warrent only half the 
house being heated and used for the usual First 
day meetings for worship. With that change it was 
customary to use the eastern end of the house 



^^^ George R. Prowell. History of Camden County, New 
Jersey (Philadelphia: Richards and Co., 1886), 621-623. 

^^^ Derry, 322, and Memo from Chairman of Building 
Committee, First month, 15, 1956, Haddonfield Monthly 
Meeting, Pamphlet Group 1 (Friends Historical Library, 
Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA). 

^^^ Derry, 322. 




222 



Figure 135 

Haddonfield Orthodox Meeting House 

author's photo 



Figure 1 36 

Haddonfield Orthodox Meeting House 

rear 

T. Chalkey Matlack 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 





223 



Figure 137 

Haddonfield Hicksite Meeting House 
T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



Figure 1 38 

Haddonfield Hicksite Meeting House 

rear 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 




224 

during the winter season and the western end 
during the remainder of the year."^^'' 

In 1952 Haddonfield Hicksite and Orthodox Quakers reunited 

and adopted the Orthodox Meeting House as their home. The 

old meeting house was sold to the American Stores Company 

with the stipulation that the old building be retained as 

part of the construction of a new Acme Supermarket (Fig. 

139), a function that it still serves. -^^^ 

Hopewell (New Hopewell) 

"On 10 mo. 6, 1798," the Friends Meeting at New 
Hopewell, informed the Meeting at Upper Evesham that they 
had a "prospect of Securing a lot of land for a meeting 
house and Burying ground." Two months later they reported 
that "a deed for the lot had been executed and proposed a 
meetinghouse 24 feet square. "^^^ 

A Haddonfield Quarterly minute dated 3 mo. 26, 1802 
stated that "A new Meeting house has been built at New 
Hopewell ... "^^° The life span of this meeting house was 
very short lived, as by 5 mo, 12, 1827, an Upper Evesham 
Monthly minute states that, 



2^^ Matlack, 420. 

3^^ Derry, 322. 

^^^ Minutes of the Upper Evesham Preparative Meeting 
(Friends Historical Library, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, 
PA), 10 mo. 6, 1798, and 12th mo. 6 1798. 

^^° Haddonfield Quarterly, 3 mo. 26, 1802. 



225 




Figure 139 

Haddonfield Hicksite Meeting House 

author's photo 



226 

"The above committee reported that the meeting 
house was in Very bad condition- windows broken- 
shutters on ground-roof leaking etc. We disposed 
of the Said meeting house to Job Norcross for the 
sum of forty dollars and gave him liberty to 
remove the same from the said lot and apply it to 
his own use."^^^ 

Prowell's History of Camden County (1886) records that after 

1820 the old meeting house was moved by Job Norcross, and 

"rebuilt as a two-story dwelling, on the Blue Anchor Road, 

not quite a mile from its old site, where it is now occupied 

as the home of William Norcross . "^^^ The meeting house was 

originally located near, "the railroad station called 

Florence, in Winslow Township of Camden County, near 

Tansboro. "^^-^ 

Medford 

The first Friends meetings held in Medford were 
conducted in the "School house near Robert Braddocks . "^^'' A 
paper commemorating the Centenary of the Medford Meeting 
House (1914) stated that "the first meeting house in Medford 
was a frame structure located about fifty yards southwest of 
the present meeting house (Orthodox ). "-^^^ The year 1762 is 



Upper Evesham Monthly, 5 mo. 12, 1827 
Prowell, 700-701 . 



321 
322 

^23 Matlack, 422 
32^ Woody, 200. 

325 



Medford Monthly Meeting Pamphlet file (Friends 
Historical Library, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA), 5 



227 

the date usually given as that of its construction and it is 
believed that it may have been an addition to the already 
existing school house, and faced the road leading down to 
Landing Bridge. ^^^ 

At an Evesham Monthly Meeting held in 1774, Friends 
belonging to the School House meeting requested "some advice 
and assistance with respect to building or enlarging their 
meetingplace . "^^^ The Friends appointed reported that they 
had "attended ye schoolhouse meeting and that they 
apprehended an enlargement of their meeting place was 
necessary, therefore ye members there of, are at liberty to 
make an addition or build a new meeting house... "^^^ 
Whether or not work occurred at this date is unknown but the 
question resurfaced again in 1812 and at that time an 
entirely new building was deemed necessary, one seventy-six 
by thirty-eight feet in length, the estimated cost of which 
was 3500 dollars. The measurements were altered to seventy- 
four by forty-two feet. Construction commenced and was 
completed in 1815.^^^ This meeting house (Figs. 140 and 
141) is located on the south side of Union Street, a short 
distance from its intersection with Main Street. Between 



^2^ Matlack, 429. 

^^'' Evesham Monthly, 10th of 3rd mo. 1774. 

^^^ Ibid., 7th Of 4mo, 1774. 

^^^ Upper Evesham Preparative, Nineth Month, 3 1812; 
Nineth Month, 30, 1813, and 2 month, 15th 1815. 




Figure 1 40 












viedford Orthodox Meet 


in 


g 


House 


author's photo 






Figure 1 41 

Medford Orthodox Meeting House 

rear 

T. Chalkey Matlack 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 


/ '^•i 






w^ 


v/ ^ 


1 


<r* 


m0^\ 






ftlri ^ 


1 ' 
•^'1 



JffM 






229 
1845 and 1847 substantial renovations were undertaken. Both 
the existing lobbies and porch were added at this time. 



330 



Medford (Hicksite) 

Until approximately April of 1842, both groups of 

Medford Friends, Hicksite and Orthodox, shared the large 

1812 meeting house. ^'^^ It would not, however, be until 1846 

that Hicksite Friends would construct a brick meeting house 

of their own (Figs. 142 and 143).^^^ 

"The Committee of Men and Women Friends verbally 
appointed at last meeting to confer together to 
see if any way should open in the clearness to 
hold our meetings on first days in the morning 
instead of the afternoon report that we have twice 
met and deliberated on the subject and no way 
appeared to open for it in the clearness to be in 
peace and Quietness other than by building a New 
meeting house which on consideration we were 
united in proposing to the meeting provided 
sufficient means can be procurred . A house about 
thirty seven or eight by sixty four or six we 
think will be sufficient to accommodate the 
Quarterly Meeting and if a house is built propose 
that it be built on the lot where the school house 
stands on south street in Medford unless some lot 
more suitable is procurred previously to 
commencing the building the plan of the house to 
be nearly similar to the present meeting house- 
The estimated cost of such a house with the 



^■^° 1 50th Anniversary of the Union Street Friends 
Meeting House 1814-1964, held Seventh Month eleventh, 1964, 
Medford N.J. Medford Monthly Meeting, Pamphlet Group 1, 
(Friends Historical Library, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, 
PA) . 

^^^ Upper Evesham Preparative, (Hicksite) 11 mo. 4th, 
1842. 

232 Derry, 264, and Matlack, 428. 



230 




Figure 142 

Medford Hicksite Meeting House 

author' s photo 



Figure 143 

Medford Hicksite Meeting House 

rear 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsy lvania 




231 

necessary fixtures round it and the yard is about 
thirty five hundred dollars . "^^-^ 

The structure, located set back on the east side of 

Main Street, south of its intersection with Union, in 

Medford, was largely financed by one man, Benjamin Davis. 

Davis' story as it has been related is melodramatic. As the 

meeting house was nearing completion, he surveyed it inorder 

to assess what hardware he was going to need to purchase on 

an upcoming trip to Philadelphia. While still inside the 

building, he had a heart attack and fell dead on the meeting 

house floor. ^^'^ In 1955, Medford Friends rejoined, service 

is held in summer months in the Hicksite structure and in 

the Orthodox building during the winter. ^^^ 

Merchantville 

The Merchantville Friends Meeting was born out of 
dissention within the Moorestown Hicksite Friends Meeting. 
Two influential ministers, Edwin L. Pierce and Franklin T. 
Haines left that meeting and opened a meeting of their own, 
neither officially affiliated with either Arch Street or 
Race Street Friends. The Meeting was established in 1901 and 
a brick structure was built to house it in the same year 
(Fig. 144). The meeting's strength was largely based on the 



^^^ Upper Evesham Preparative (Hicksite). 10 mo. 2 1846, 

^^^ Matlack, 428, quoting History of Burlington County, 
1883. 

^^^ Derry, 267. 



232 




Figure 1 44 

Merchantville Meeting House 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



233 
large following of its leaders and when ill health struck 
them both the meeting foundered. The property came into the 
hands of the Bell Telephone Company who demolished the 
meeting house in the process of constructing a central 
office. The building was located on East Maple, a short 
distance from Center Street. ^^^ 

Moorestown (Chester) 

The Meeting of Friends at Moorestown was first 
organized in 1685.^^'' Its first home was named the Adams 
Meeting House after James and Esther Adams who gave the plot 
of land on which it was built. "All that Acre of land 
adjoining to the King's Highway on the west and is lying & 
being on the western most parts of the moity of Four hundred 
Seventy five acres of land heretofore conveyed ... "^-^ The 
building is said to have stood on the north-west corner of 



■^■^'^ Matlack, 431 . 

^^'' Burlington Monthly, 9th, 9th 1685; George DeCou . 
Moorestown and Her Neighbors-Historical Sketches 
(Philadelphia: Harris & Partridge Inc., 1929), 57, and 
Matlack, 432. 

^^^ Deed, James and Esther Adams to John Hollinghead, 
Matthew Allin, John Adams, William Hollinghead, Thomas 
Frouth, Joseph Heritage, Thomas Willis, John Cooperthwaite, 
William Marklocke, Sarah Roberts, Richard Heritage, Thomas 
Hutton and Timothy Hamok, 9th day of second month April 1700 
recorded in Secretary Office in Burlington Book G H Folio 
373 5/3 (original at Friends Historical Library, Swarthmore 
College, Swarthmore, PA). 



234 
the present Main and Chester Avenues. ^^^ A Chesterfield 
Monthly minute of 6th 8mo. 1720 states that, "The friends of 
Chester, being the lower part of this county, acquainted 
friends of this meeting sometime past that by an accident of 
fire their meeting house was burnt. "^^° 

Moorestown, Old and New by James C. Purdy, a local 
history published in 1886, recorded that a plan of the 
meeting house lot and cemetery had survived to that date and 
showed the meeting house located in the southeastern corner 
of the lot, next to Chester Avenue facing Main Street. ^'^^ 
This work also states that the Adams Meeting House was 
fashioned from logs.^^^ The meeting house constructed after 
the fire, was said by Purdy to have been constructed of 
stone . ^^^ 

On December 27, 1781, land was purchased on the south 
side of Main Street at the head of Chester Avenue, nearly 
across the street from the old meeting house and 



Burlington Monthly, second month 9th, 1700; George 
DeCou. Moorestown and Her Neighbors; Historical Sketches 
(Philadelphia: Harris and Partridge, 1929), 57, and Matlack, 
432-433. 

^''° Chesterfield Monthly, 6th 8mo . 1720, and Matlack, 
432-433. 

^'^^ Purdy, 128. 

^^^ Ibid. , 128. 

^'^^ Ibid. , 128-129. 



235 




Figure 1 45 

Moorestown Hicksite Meeting House 
T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



Figure 1 45 

Moorestown Hicksite Meeting House 

Author's photo 




236 




fUltNnS' MLKTING-HOUSE AND AUADEM Y, MnoUESTOWN. 



Figure 147 

Moorestown Orthodox and Hicksite Meeting Houses 

and School House 

Woodward's History of Burlington County 



237 
graveyard. ^^'^ On this lot a stone school house was 
constructed. T. Chalkey Matlack states that a portion of the 
stone wall of this school house survives in the west wall of 
the brick meeting house constructed on that site and 
completed in 1802 (Figs. 145 and 146).^'*^ This is probably 
not the case as a photograph depicted in Woodward's History 
of Burlington County (Fig. 147) shows the two Quaker Meeting 
Houses, Orthodox and Hicksite, standing simultaneously but 
structurally separate with the school building in 
between. -^^^ Purdy states that this school house was 
constructed of stone taken from the meeting house across the 
street. ^^'' The minutes of the Chester Meeting clarify the 



events . 



"We the committee appointed to take into 
consideration what may be best to build a new 
meeting house with & having generally met agree to 
report that the said house be built with brick. 
The calculated expense not less than a 1000 and we 
propose Robert French, and John Collins be 
appointed managers of the same, and Samuel Roberts 
Sr., Edmund Hollinshead, Joseph Roberts, and 
Rueban Mattack be appointed as assistant 
committee. We likenwist propose that the little 
meeting house be taken down and such parts of the 



Deed, Ephraim Haines and Hannah, his wife to Joshua 
Roberts, Jacob Hollinshead, James Cattle, "Elders and 
Overseers of the Society or Congregation of Friends" 12th 
month 27 day 1781 (Friends Historical Library, Swarthmore 
College, Swarthmore, PA). 



^^^ Matlack, 432. 
^■^^ Woodward, 258 
^'^'' Purdy, 1 30. 



238 

other as may be convenient to take out and leave 
the walls standing, so as it may accommodate us 
while the new one is a building ... "^^^ "The 
Committee appointed last month in order to 
consider what might be best to do with the old 
meeting house, they now report that they were 
generally united that it would be best to pull 
down and make sale of the stone ye except such 
part as is wanted for building sheds, and fence in 
the ground... and the committee that was appointed 
to have care of the building is appointed to have 
it performed. . ,"^^'^ 

In 1803, the Evesham Monthly Meeting recorded, "One new 

Meeting house erected for the accommodation of Chester 

Particular Meeting, in Lieu and near the place of the old 

one."^^° The large rear addition and its accompanying 

interior modifications appear, based on photographic 

evidence, to date to just before 1927.^^^ 



Moorestown (Orthodox) 

James C. Purdy records in Moorestown, Old and New, 
that, in 1829, Moorestown Orthodox Friends constructed a 
frame meeting house on the western end of the 1803 meeting 
house lot. ^^2 Ellis Derry in Old and Historic Churches of 



Minutes of the Chester Preparative Meeting (Friends 
Historical Library, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA), 
10th mo 7th day 1800. 

^"•^ Ibid., 2nd month 8th day 1801. 

^^° Matlack, 433. 

^^'' Moorestown, Hicksite Meeting House, Meeting House 
Photo Collection (Friends Library, Swarthmore College, 
Swarthmore, PA). 

^^2 Purdy, 131 . 



239 
New Jersey, maintains that the Orthodox retained control of 
the old stone school house and met there until 1839 when a 
new frame building (Fig. 148) was erected. The wooden 
building served until 1897 when the present large brick 
structure was erected (Figs. 149, 150 and 151).^" This 
building, in the wake of Orthodox/Hicksite repatriation, has 
been renovated to serve as the gymnasium for the large 
Quaker school erected behind it. 

Newton (Camden) 

George R. Prowell's History of Camden County, N.J. 
(1886) states, 

"In the spring of 1682, a few Irish Friends, who 
had spent the winter in Salem, moved up to and 
settled about Newton Creek. Thomas Sharp, (1660- 
1729) one of these Irish Friends, one of their 
number, in his account of their early settlement, 
says 'In 1684 the Friends in the vicinity of 
Newton, desirous of erecting a house of worship, 
selected a lot of land on the bank of the middle 
branch of Newton Creek, containing about two 
acres, it being on the bounds of land of Mark 
Newby and Thomas Thackera, which was laid out fore 
a burial ground, and at the West end a log 
meeting-house was erected .' "^^^ 

Matlack states that the work was executed by 

William. ^^^ Matlack also quotes the journal of Joseph 

Hinchman that states that on the 22nd of December 1817, this 



^" Ellis L. Derry. Old and Historic Churches of New 
Jersey (Union City: Wm. H. Wise & Co., 1979), 245. 

^^'^ Prowell, 650. 



355 



Matlack, 440 



240 




Figure 148 

Moorestown Orthodox Meeting House 
T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



241 




Figure 149 

Moorestown Orthodox Meeting House 

front 

author's photo 



Figure 1 50 

Moorestown Orthodox Meeting House 

rear 

author's photo 




242 




Figure 1 51 

interior , 

Moorestov;n Orthodox Meeting House 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



243 
meeting house was destroyed by fire. The meeting house was 
located in West Collingswood, between Lynne Street and the 
railroad. ^^^ Matlack also states that, "Close by is an old 
building dating from 1753 (Fig. 152), remodeled or rebuilt 
in 1821, having the later date on its gable wall. This 
locally is said to have been a Friends' Meeting House. "^^^ 
In 1801, a large brick edifice was constructed (Fig. 
153) on what is today Mount Vernon Street, near its 
intersection with Haddon Avenue. A date stone marked 1801 
was set in the building's western gable. ^^^ Orthodox 
Quakers met in that house until the meeting was laid down in 
-1924.359 ^g Qf 1928 the meeting house was being used as the 
headquarters of Boy Scout Troop 21.^^° Beginning in 1934, 
the city of Camden took to the continued maintenance of the 
structure as it was realized to be the city's oldest house 
of worship. ^^^ The building has since been demolished. 

Newton (Hicksite) 

In the days immediately following the separation, 
Hicksite Quakers held their meetings in the school house of 

^^^ Ibid. , 440. 

3" Ibid. 

^^^ Ibid. , 436. 

^^^ Ibid. , 435. 

^^° Ibid. , 438. 

^^^ Ibid., 437. 



244 




Figure 1 52 

Newton Meeting House 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



245 




Figure 1 53 

possible meeting house, 

Newton 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



246 
the Camden Academy. ^^^ Less than three weeks later a lot of 
land for a new meeting house was located and donated to the 
Friends by Joseph W. Cooper.^" The meeting house erected 
on it was known disparagingly by the Orthodox Friends as, 
"the Hicksite Cabin" or "the nine days' wonder . "'^^'^ It 
seems to have generally been nicknamed, "the little cabin in 
the woods. "^^^ In 1885, the Newton Hicksite Meeting House 
was considerably renovated, enlarged and architecturally 
embellished in the manner of the time. The architect 
responsible for the alterations is tentatively believed to 
have been Wilson Eyre Jr. This attribution is based 
primarily on the word of Mrs. Emily Cooper Johnson who 
quoted statements to that effect made by her father, Howard 
Cooper, a prominent Camden citizen and a trustee of the 
meeting house at the time of its renovation . ^^^ The Wilson 
Eyre Jr. /Howard Cooper connection is confirmed by the fact 
that Eyre later designed Cooper's own home . ^^^ At the time 
of the meeting house renovations. Eyre was working in 



^^^ Prowell, 467 

363 



Minutes of the Newton Hicksite Preparative Meeting 
(Friends Historical Library, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, 
PA), seventh Month 6, 1828; Prowell, 467, and Matlack, 437. 

^^* Edward Teitelman. "A Queen Anne Quaker Meetinghouse: 
Newton Meeting, Camden, New Jersey," Quaker History, 55 
(Autumn 1966) 106. 

^^^ Matlack, 437, quoting the notes of Amos J. Peasley. 

^^^ Teitelman, 109. 

''' Ibid. 



247 




Figure 154 

Newton Hicksite Meeting House 

copy of drawing 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



248 




Figure 1 55 

Newton Hicksite Meeting House 

author's photo 



Figure 156 

Newton Hicksite Meeting House 

rear 

author's photo 




24< 
Camden, on the Dr. Henry Genet Taylor House. ^^^ Whomever 
the architect, this meeting house (Fig. 154, 155 and 156), 
is located on the south side of Cooper Street, east of 
Seventh Street and is still in use.^^^ 

Sommer's Meeting 

On the 3rd day of the tenth month of 1785, members of 

this meeting obtained approval from the Great Egg Harbor 

Monthly Meeting to purchase a site for the purpose of 

constructing a meeting house. ^^° An old resident of the 

area recalled in 1918 that as a child she had known this 

building (Fig. 157). 

"It was a one and a half story affair, the one 
half story being the attic. It had a central door 
with windows each side. At one end, towards the 
west, was a large brick chimney from the ground to 
the peak of the roof. At the eastern end of the 
building was a window. It had cedar shingles and 
weatherboard sides and ends. It faced Ocean City 
and stood at what is now the Southwest corner of 
New York Avenue and Main Street. It was inherited 
by her uncle, Jesse Sommers, who cut it in half. 
He used half as a tennent dwelling and moved the 
other half to the hollow next to Captain Sooy's 
house, north side, and used it as a blacksmith 
shop. "371 



368 Ibid. 

365 Prowell, 467. 

3^° Great Egg Harbor Monthly, 3rd day tenth month of 



1785 



3''^ Matlack, 416, quoting Frank H. Stewart, then 
President of the Glouchester County Historical Society who 
interviewed, "a certain Mrs. Anderson," on July 31, 1918. 



250 




Figure 1 57 

Sommer's Point Meeting House 

drawing 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 



251 
Westf ield 

The meeting at Westf ield was first organized in 1794. 

The earliest meeting house is said to have been constructed 

in 1800 and the first meeting held in it 12th month, 21, 

1800.^^^ That building apparently succumbed to fire. 

"At a Meeting of the members of Westfield 
Preparative Meeting held in the School house the 
23rd day of 3mo. 1859 to take into consideration 
measures for rebuilding the meeting house, in the 
place of the old one burned on first day afternoon 
last (the 20th instant), Asa Lippincott & Nathan 
H. Conrow were appointed to collect information 
and suggest plans for the construction of a new 
house. "^^2 

Westfield, 3rd mo 30th 1859 

"Near the time adjourned to, the members again met 
and the committee appointed at last mtg to propose 
plans for the construction of a new meeting house 
exhibited several, which being carefully examined, 
the following was agreed upon (viz.) The Building 
to be Brick or Stone 36 by 40 feet, all the seats 
upon the same floor, and to have large Partitions 
or shutters to lower down so as to divide the room 
into two appartments for meetings of 
buisness . " 

The following is an extract from "An Historical Sketch 
of Westfield Meeting and School" being a portion of a 
personal recollection entitled "The Meeting House and 
Grounds As they were in 1871." 

"There was one small committee room at the back, 



^^^ Matlack, 443, and Nathan H. Conrow. Historical 
Sketches of Westfield Meeting and School, 7, quoting "John 
Hunt's Diary". 

^" Matlack, 444. 

^^^ Ibid. , 444. 



252 

where the men's preparative Meeting was held and 
where the adult Bible Class met during the 
Firstday School hour. This annex was only one 
story high and contained four or five benches 
seating about thirty people and was heated by a 
wood stove. This little room also contained the 
Firstday school library with its shelves of books 
against the North West wall. This room was a very 
busy place after meeting on Firstdays Then we 
children bought back our library books and 
exchanged them for others to read during the week. 
Swiss Family Robinson, The Rollo books, and Boys 
of Other Countries were some of the books I 
remember. We looked forward each month to the 
Scattered Seeds which were distributed to us 
through first day school. On Preparative Meeting 
days the Women Friends held their Preparative 
Meetings in the large room of the Meeting house 
and the men withdrew to the small room; each group 
to transact its own Monthly meeting at 
Moorestown." (Figs. 158 and 159)^^^ 

Recently, a new Westfield Meeting House has been erected 

(Fig. 150) on the east side of Route 206 in Cinnaminson, and 

the nineteenth century building is now used as a preschool. 



Westfield (Orthodox) 

Hicksite Quakers retained the new meeting house at the 
time of the split. Orthodox Quakers met until 1848 in a 
school house on Marmaduke Lippincott's farm.'^^^ After the 
above date, a frame meeting house (Fig. 151), 38 by 44 feet 
was constructed in the town of Pamona, half a mile from 
Westfield . •^^^ This building either has not survived or 
remains unidentified by the author. 



^^^ Conrow, 1 3. 
^^^ Woodward, 300. 
2" Matlack, 444. 




253 



'igure 1 58 

/estfieid Meeting House 

luthor's photo 



Figure 159 

Westfield Meeting House 

rear 

author ' s photo 





254 



Figure 1 60 

iVestfield Meeting House 

authors photo 



20th c. ) 



Figure 1 61 

Westfield Orthodox Meeting House 
T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania 




255 

Meeting Houses of the Salem Quarterly Meeting 

Allowaystown (Thompson's Bridge, Head of Alloway's Creek) 

The Meeting at Allowaystown was established early, in 

1583, and discontinued early, in 1810."^''® The meeting house 

was a frame structure, erected in 1756. 

"At Our Monthly Meeting held at Salem 25th day of 
4th month 1755 the Friends at the head of 
Alloway's Creek made Application to have a new 
Meeting house built to accommodate friends in that 
part to which proposal this meeting agrees and 
Benjamin Thompson, Isaac Oakford and Isaac 
Thompson are appointed managers to see and get and 
build between this and next fall, and bring the 
account there of to this meeting. 



379 



The meeting house site and what remains of the burial 

ground are located just west of the start of Alloway's Creek 

on Route 540. The fate of the structure is best related in a 

minute from a Salem Monthly Meeting held the 27th day of the 

eleventh month, 1809: 

"The meeting house at the head of Alloways Creek 
belonging to this meeting having become 
unnecessary and useless in conseguence of the 
decrease of Friends in that neighborhood by 
deaths, removals, etc., and Friends of Upper 
Pennsneck informing they were desirrous of 
enlarging their meetinghouse, and that they 
apprehend the frame, etc., of said house at 
Alloways Creek would be useful to them, on 
considering the subject it appeared the united 
sense of the meeting that Friends of Upper 
Pennsneck be at liberty to remove all or such 



378 
379 



Ibid., 557. 

Salem Monthly, 25th day, forth month, 1755. 



256 



Figure 162 

Survey, 

Head of Alloway's Creek Meeting House 

Friend's Historical Library 

Swarthmore College 



t=t 






257 



^^(S. tJytJC-^uivaJ .y/ /L 










w. 



tyffofiM ^^^cty ^otJanoat (!^7?ve.'=Jj0m: fi7?(_^ovsm3 ''--^cyfc^ur/ne£/ 




258 

parts as they may think useful to them, with the 
stove, benches, etc., belonging thereto. "■^° 

Matlack suggests that "the Allowaystown meeting house 

was reproduced, probably quite similar to its original self, 

in the frame structure erected in Pedricktown in 1812. But 

the appearance, of course, was changed when a second story 

was added in 1859 (see Fig. 192)."^^ About 1950, the lot 

and graveyard was bulldozed destroying the surviving stone 

foundation. -^^ 

Alloway's Creek (Hancock's Bridge) 

The Alloway's Creek Meeting was organized in 1679 and 

first accommodated in the home of John Denn . -^^ In 1684, 

the General Meeting held in Salem ordered, 

"that ye meeting be kept once in two weeks in that 
part of Alloway's Creek as Elsinboro friends shall 
think most convenient and ordered ye Jos Thompson, 
Andrew Thompson, Jos White, Tho Woodrofe, Isaac 
Smart, George Deacon, Edward Bradway doe view ye 
ground where ye meeting shall be upon sixth day 
next and purchase the ground ... "^®^ 

The meeting house was constructed on land on the north 



381 



Ibid., 27th day of the eleventh month, 1809 
Matlack, 582. 



^^ Salem Quarter, 352. 

^^ Thos . Gushing, M.D. and Charles E. Sheppard. History 
of the Counties of Glouchester, Salem and Cumberland, New 
Jersey, with Biographical Sketches of their prominent 
Citizens. (Everts and Peck, 1883; reprint ed . Woodbury, NJ: 
Glouchester County Historical Society, 1974), 424. 

^ Salem Monthly, 15 2nd month, 1684. 



259 

side of the river. -^^ 

"Dito the meeting agreed with Christ. White that 
he shall build a meeting house upon ground lately 
bought of Edward Champney, the house to be 20 feet 
long and 15 foot wide, to be finished in 3 months 
time with two windows and two doors, with boards 
for a loft, ? ye lofs? 8 foote high, the walls 
lathed and daubed on both sides the roof 
proportional to the width and length of ye house 
and he the said Christ, to have twelve pounds for 
the work. "3^^ 

Later, changes in population made it more convenient to 
hold meetings on the south side of the river. 25th day of 
the 11th Mo. 1702, "It was proposed by friends of Alloways 
Creek that they might remove so much of their meeting house 
as may be permissible to a more convenient place." 

In 1718, a new meeting house was constructed on land 
donated by Joseph Ware."^^ In 1753, John Hancock deeded 
land for the construction of a larger brick meeting house 
that was completed in 1755 (Figs. 153 and 154)."^^ 
Alloway's Creek was made a preparative meeting in 1783 and 
after 1784 was in alternation with the meeting house in 
Greenwich, the site of the Greenwich Monthly Meeting. The 
building was expanded, doubled to make room for the monthly. 

"At a Preparative Meeting held 8 mo 25th 1784... 



^^ Salem Quarter, 315. 

^^ Salem Monthly, 28th day second month 1584. 

^^ Ibid., 25th day of 11th mo. 1702. 

^^ Salem Quarter, 316, and Salem Monthly, 25th of ye 
4th 1755. 




260 



Figure 1 53 

Lower Alloway's Creek Meeting House 

author' s photo 



Figure 1 54 

rear 

Lower Alloway's Creek Meeting House 

author ' s photo 




261 

This meeting agrees, that in regard to a mode of 
addition of our meetinghouse that the managers 
pull down the west end and an addition sufficient 
to square each room and raise the new part as high 
as the old and as much higher as may be thought 
necessary and the old part likenwist . "^^ 

The Alloway's Creek Meeting was laid down in 1930 for 

lack of membership and its property was transferred to the 

care of the Salem Monthly Meeting. Between 1940 and 1951, 

the meeting house housed the Salem County Historical Society 

but it has since been returned to the care of the Salem 

Monthly Meeting which currently maintains it and uses it for 

special meetings at least once yearly. The meeting house is 

located on Buttonwood Road at the eastern fringe of the 

village of Hancock's Bridge. ^^° 

Cape May (Beesley's Point) 

This meeting seems to have had its start at some 

unspecified date in the late seventeenth century. The first 

meeting house in the region seems to have been constructed 

in 1727 at Beesley's Point. 

"29th of 3rd month 1727 at a Monthly meeting held 
at Rebeckah Garretson's House... At s'd meeting it 
is concluded to build a meeting house by Jacob 
Garretson and Jacob Garretson agrees to give one 
acre of land for the servis of s'd meeting which 



■^^ Minutes of the Alloway's Creek Preparative Meeting 
(Friends Historical Library, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore 
P. A.), 26th day, 8th month, 1784. 

^^° Salem Quarter, 321. 



262 

house is to be built this fall."^^^ 
Cape May had just recently, in 1726, obtained 
permission to hold a monthly meeting. -^^^ The first monthly 
meeting held in that house occurred in 1729 probably 
indicating the approximate date of the building's 
completion . ^^^ In 1753, members of "the upper precinct of 
Cape May" requested permission to construct their own 
meeting house which was completed by the nineth month. -^^^ 
This is the meeting house known today at Seaville. At least 
until 1772, both meeting houses, upper and lower (Seaville 
and Beesley's Point respectively), were both in use, 
alternating as the site of the monthly meeting. ^^^ The fate 
of the meeting house at Beesley's Point is not known. The 
Cape May Monthly Meeting ceased to exist in 1804 when the 
Cape May Preparative Meeting was transferred from the 
Haddonfield Quarter to the Salem Quarter and became a part 



•'^^ Minutes of the Great Egg Harbor and Cape May Monthly 
Meeting, 29th Of 3rd month, 1727, and Matlack, 406. 

^^^ Minutes of the Haddonfield Quarterly Meeting 
(Friends Historical Library, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, 
PA), 16 of 7th 1726, and Salem Quarter, 341-342. 

^^^ Great Egg Harbor Monthly, 4th of 6th mo. 1729, and 
Salem Quarter, 26. 

^^^ Great Egg Harbor Monthly, 5th day 9 mo 1763, and 
Salem Quarter, 264. 

^^^ Salem Quarter, 264. 



263 

of the newly founded Maurice River Monthly Meeting. •'^^ 

Greenwich 

The Greenwich Meeting was first held in the home of 
Joseph Browne beginning in 1685.^^^ In 1687, the same 
Joseph Browne sold to Charles Bagley, "a lot 50 feet on the 
street and 55 feet deep, for the only use, service, & 
purpose of a meeting-house & graveyard for those people in 
scorn called Quakers; between ye dwelling-house of ye Joseph 
Browne & his new Barne."'^^^ This was a portion of a parcell 
of land originally purchased from John Fenwick by Mark Reeve 
on August 9, 1686.^^^ A Salem Monthly Minute dated the 26th 
day of the 3d month of 1690, records the request of Cohansey 
Friends to erect a meeting house of their own.*°° The 
request was not acted on until at least 1693 when the Salem 
Monthly granted Cohansey Friends money to assist in the 



■^^^ Minutes of the Woodbury Quarterly Meeting (Friends 
Historical Library, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA), 
20th of 2nd month, 1804, and Salem Quarter, 265. 



397 



Salem Monthly, 29th day, 9th mo. 1686. 



^^'^ Matlack, 565, quoting Deed Book 5, Salem County 
Records . 

^^^ W.S. Bacon "Search of the Title of Friends Property 
in Greenwich, 8-8-12." Deeds, Greenwich Monthly Meeting 
Misc, Papers (Friend's Historic Library, Swarthmore College, 
Swarthmore, PA), quoting "Trenton Records, Greenwich Town 
lots." 

''°° Salem Monthly, 26th, 3rd mo. 1690. 



264 



construction of a meeting house. ^°^ Nineteenth century 



works have held that the meetinghouse first erected here was 
a log structure. 

A Salem Monthly minute of 1725, may indicate that 
Greenwich Friends erected a second meeting house sometime 
about that date. "This Meeting orders Andrew Thompson to pay 
Jon Goodwin six pounds for building ye brick works of the 
Cohansey Meeting house. "''°^ 

In 1755, the Salem Monthly minutes record that the 
Greenwich Meeting was, "under the necessity of building a 
larger house for better accommodating their meeting and have 
proposed to build one forty feet in width which they 
concluded will cost two hundred and fifty pounds . "''°'^ 

This building (Figs. 165, 166, 167, 168 and 169), as 
indicated by a date stone, is apparently that which survives 
today. At some time since its date of construction, 
unspecified in either the surviving meeting records or the 
local histories, this building has been enlarged and a 
second doorway added to the main facade. This is clear from 
the prominent joint in the building's brick work just to the 
north of the southern door on the street facade. This 
addition was most likely added in anticipation of the 



""^ Ibid., 25th day of 10th month, 1693. 

*°2 Ibid. , 21st, 2d 1725. 

^" Ibid., fifth day, thirty-first, 1765. 



265 
creation of the Greenwich Monthly Meeting in 1783/°* The 
Monthly minutes record that a fire took place in the meeting 
house in 1793, there is no record as to what the extent of 
the damage was /°^ The meeting house is located near the 
terminus of "Ye Create" otherwise known as Greenwich Street 
(Fig. 170). The meeting itself dwindled to only one member 
during the 1920's, but has now regained considerable 
strength. The meeting house, unheated, is used for summer 
meetings .''°^ 

Greenwich (Hicksite) 

With the advent of the Hicksite separation, Orthodox 
Quakers in Greenwich retained use of the old Greenwich 
Meeting House. Hicksite Quakers worshiped in private 
residences at first. In 1831, the Hicksite Quakers purchased 
an old Methodist meeting house, previously located on the 
southern side of Mount Gibbon, and moved it to Ye Greate 
Street. ''°^ Approximately a quarter century later, it was 
decided to build a new meeting house (Figs. 171, 172 and 



""^ Salem Quarterly, 18th Of 11th month 1783. 

"^^ Minutes of the Greenwich Monthly Meeting (Friends 
Historical Library, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA), 
27th 11 month 1793. 

"^^ Salem Quarter, 162. 

*°' (Untitled Article) Upper Main Line News, (N.D.) 
"Interesting + Historical" Swarthmore Pamphlet Collection, 
Greenwich Monthly Meeting (Friends Historical Library, 
Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA), and Salem Quarter, 163 
and 165. 



266 



173) 



"The subject of building a new-house for the 
accommodation of this meeting being called up, 
Benjamin L. Tyler report, he had been informed of 
twelve-hundred dollars being subscribed. The 
meeting approve of William Test, John Tyler, Reube 
Hyliard and Benjamin L. Tyler going on and 
building a house ... '""^^ 

"This meeting appoint William Test and James Dare 
to act with John Tyler to take a deed of trust for 
lot of ground for the meeting house and 
yard..."^°5 

1 2mo 23rd 1857, "William Test as one of the 
commity to build a house report they have built 
the house and find it cost 2010.95."''^° 

Thus as its date stone states, the present small brick 

meeting house was completed in 1857. Now centrally heated, it 

is used by Greenwich Friends for worship during the winter. 

It is located on Ye Create Street just west of the village 

of Greenwich."" 



Maurice River (Port Elizabeth) 

"At a Monthly Meeting held at Greenwich the 2nd 
day of the fifth month 1798, the friends appointed 
to attend to Meetings at Maurice River informed 
they have attended the most of them & believe them 
to be held to satisfaction and also informed they 



Minutes of the Greenwich Hicksite Preparative 
Meeting (Friends Historical Library, Swarthmore College, 
Swarthmore, PA), 6 mo. 24th 1857. 

""^ Ibid. , 8 mo 26th 1857. 

''^° Ibid., 12 month 3rd 1857. 

*" Salem Quarter, 163-165, and Matlack, 566. 



267 




Figure 1 65 

Greenwich Meeting House 

author's photo 



Figure 1 66 

rear , 

Greenwich Meeting House 

author's photo 




268 




Figure 1 67 

interior, 

Greenwich Meeting House 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 




^■^ 269 



Figure 158 

interior, 

Greenwich Meeting House 

author ' s photo 



Figure 1 69 

interior, 

Greenwich Meeting House 

author' s phota 




270 



Figure 170 

Survey, 

Greenwich Meeting House 

Friend's Historical Library 

Swarthmore College 



271 







e 




% 




c? 


h 


^ 




o 




^ 




(^ 






a; 






2 


.-=?• ^ 


u 
u 


'■^. '' 


« . 


■^ J 






[\ SulVCUcJ l-L, 



OIA 



id fit J/ jJercfn, 



</J 



^^ rSi 



if) 



^ 



\ t-ii^niuXAtf 3i:A.RT 



=s. - ) 



272 




Figure 1 7 1 

Greenwich Hicksite Meeting House 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 




273 



Figure 172 

Greenwich Hicksite Meeting House 

author's photo 



Figure 173 

rear, 

Greenwich Hicksite Meeting House 

author's photo 




274 

were building a meetinghouse with which this 
meeting unites and leave them at liberty to hold 
them as usual for six months . '"'^^ 

A monthly meeting was established at Maurice River in 

1804. The last recorded meeting of any type was held in 

1881. '^^"^ "It is generally assumed that the meeting house 

was built by Stephen Murphy, a carpenter and member of the 

meeting. "^^^ It was a timber framed and wood sided, one 

story structure, approximately 30 x 20 feet built on the 

east side of Delsea Drive, Route 47, approximately 1000 feet 

north of the bridge over the Manumuskin Creek in the Friends 

Burial Ground. ^^^ In 1884 the meeting house (Fig. 174) was 

sold to Capt. Thomas M. Reeves who used much of the building 

for firewood. In 1888, the remaining timbers and stone 

foundation were removed by J. W. B. Vanaman and used in the 

construction of a barn on Ferry Lane in Port Elizabeth. The 

barn was blown down in a hurricane during the 1960's.*^^ 

Pilesgrove (Woodstown) 

Initially, Friends in the Pilesgrove area travelled to 
Salem for meeting. In 1720, they were given permission to 



412 



Greenwich Monthly, 2nd day, fifth month, 1798. 

413 

1881 . 



"^^ Salem Quarter, 358, and Woodbury Monthly, 1 0mo 23rd 



Salem Quarter, 356 



414 

*^^ Ibid. , 355. 

'^^^ Matlack, 567, and Salem Quarter, 35f 



275 




Figure 174 

Maurice River Meeting House 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



276 
hold their own winter meetings in the house of Roger 
Huggins."^'' Pilesgrove Friends almost immediately began to 
consider building their own meeting house. In that same 
year, Roger Huggins, Aquilla Barber, Joseph White Jr. and 
Edward Hews purchased from Joseph White, Sr. one half acre 
of land on North Main Street (Route 45)."^^ A frame meeting 
house was constructed on this property and meetings were 
held from 1725 until 1785.''^^ In that year the large brick 
meeting house (Figs. 175, 176 and 177), presently standing, 
was erected on an adjoining half acre lot purchased in 
1771. "2° After 1837, Salem Quarterly Meetings were held 
twice a year in Woods town ."^^ In 1849, the building was 
enlarged by tearing down the rear, (west) wall and adding a 
fifteen foot addition, "In order that the house be so 
enlarged as to accommodate all with seats who may attend 
the Quarterly meeting held there. ""^^ In 1873, the two 
pedimental door coverings were removed and replaced with the 
long "portico" around the street facade and west end of the 



296 



"^^ Salem Monthly, 30th day, 3rd month 1720. 

'^^^ Salem Quarter, 294. 

^^^ Ibid. , 295. 

''^° Salem Monthly, 25th day 7mo 1785, and Salem Quarter, 

"^^ Salem Quarter, 300. 
"^^ Ibid. , 301-302. 




277 



Figure 1 75 

Pilesgrove Meeting House 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



Figure 1 75 

side, 

Pilesgrove Meeting House 

author ' s photo 





Figure 177 

rear, 

Pilesgrove Meeting House 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



Figure 178 

Pilesgrove Orthodox Meeting House 
T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania 




279 



building and which survives today. " In 1907, a fr 



ame 



annex was added to the rear of the building and in 1927 the 
partition was removed from the main meeting space and the 
balcony was floored over for classroom space. The removal of 
the partition was apparently motivated by the installation 
of a new steam heating system, replacing the four stoves 
that had sufficed up until that date and making it efficient 
to heat the entire space instead of half as had become the 
practice after separate women's meetings were 
discontinued.''^'' The building was further enlarged in 
separate efforts made in 1955, 1966 and 1974, the last two 
both being additions made to the kitchen. ''^^ 

Pilesgrove (Orthodox) 

In 1828, Woodstown Orthodox Friends erected a small, 
frame building (Fig. 178) on Union Street near Elm, now 355 
North Main Street. "^^ In 1969, the meeting house was sold 
to the Historic Village of Smithville and moved to the other 
side of the state. In 1987, ownership was again transferred 



"^^ Minutes of the Pilesgrove Hicksite Preparative 
Meeting (Friends Historical Library, Swarthmore College, 
Swarthmore, PA), 6mo. 26th day, 1873. 

''^'' Minutes of the Woodstown Monthly Meeting, 10 mo 29 
1907; Minutes of the Woodstown Preparative Meeting (Friends 
Historical Library, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA), 8- 
7-1927, and Salem Quarter, 303-304. 

"^^ Woodstown Monthly, Sept. 27, 1955, and Salem 
Quarter, 303 and 307. 

"^^ Salem Quarter, 310, and Matlack, 574, 



280 

and the building was relocated behind the Atlantic City Area 
Friends Meeting House at 437-A South Pitney Road, Galloway 
Township /^^ 

Salem 

The Friends Meeting at Salem was organized in 1576. The 
first meeting house at Salem was a renovated dwelling house 
sold, along with 15 acres, to the Quakers by Samuel and Ann 
Nicholson for twelve pounds in 1581.''^® This tract of land 
is located on West Broadway, a portion of which still 
remains in the ownership of the Society of Friends and 
comprises the Salem Friend's grave yard.^^^ 

Immediate modifications were made to the Nicholson 

house . 

"It is articled and agreed betwixt Robert Zane, 
John Thomson and Thomas Pierce for ye repaire of 
ye said meeting house viz to cover it with 
clapboard and put wind beames to every couple of 
rafters and braces to ye ruff: ye doore on ye 
south side to be removed & a doore with a shutter 
on ye north side of ye house and ye northside to 
be lathed and daubed & ye doore to be placed in ye 
south next to ye shedd, ye work to be done in 
three months after ye date here of.'*^^ 

Several months later, the building was enlarged, 

possibly in response to a minute of a General Meeting held 



428 



Salem Quarter, 312. 

Salem Quarter, 211; Deed, 5th day of 4th month. 



called June, 1581; Jaquette, 1, and Derry, 98. 
''^^ Salem Quarter, 212. 
''^° Salem Monthly, 4th day of the 5th mo. 1581 



281 
in Burlington that required Salem to hold a separate women's 
meeting. '^^^ 

"Ordered by the meeting that the meeting house 
shall be enlarged fifteen foote in length and in 

the highte equal with the old frame with a chimney 

and pair of stairs, and Jo Thompson and Robert 

Zane to have the ordering and oversight of the 
work. "^32 

As Salem quickly became the site of monthly, quarterly 

and general meetings, the house was soon outgrown. 

"The 26th day of the eighth month., 1685, it was 
agreed by the monthly meeting and Benjamin Acton 
that the said Benjamin shall build a room twenty 
feet in length and in breadth equal with the 
meetinghouse in Salem joining and ranging equal in 
heighth with the said meetinghouse, joyned to ye 
edge and of ye old meetinghouse, with two windows 
in said room where ye said Benjamin shall be 
directed, and a partition betwixt the new room and 
the old with two doors containing the breadth of 
the house with a chimney at the east end of the 
house, and the said Benjamin is to have twelve 
pounds for his labor and Friends to find all 
materials, and to bring all things to the place 
the house must stand and the said Benjamin is to 
make it a good frame house and to lay sufficient 
joists or beams for the floor of the upper room, 
and Benjamin is to make a little door the 
aforesaid pertition and to clapboard the walls and 
to shingle the roof, and the said Benjamin is to 
finish the house by the first of the second month 
next. .'"^^^ 

An addendum was made to these instructions the next month, 

"It was thought fit by Friends that the partition 
in the east end of the old meeting house be made 
three foot high with shutters to use up and down 
according to the direction of John Thompson and 



^•^^ Burlington Monthly, last day sixth Mo. 1681 
"•^^ Salem Monthly, 26th, 10th, 1681. 
"^^ Ibid., 26th day 8th Month 1685. 



282 

Christopher White. '"'^^ 

And another on 27th of 2nd Month 1686, 

"It was ordered by the said meeting that 
Christopher White and John Thompson make an 
agreement with Benjamin Acton to make and lie the 

upper floore and lower floore of the new end of 
the meeting house and also to clapboard the wall 
on the inside and fill it with ? morter . '"^-^^ 

Further alterations were called for on in 1688, 

"It was ordered that Christopher White and John 
Thompson take care to see the new end of the 
meeting house floored overhead with boards and to 
make it convenient for the people to sit in and to 
seat round about as they may see it most 
convenient with a pair of stairs and to have it 
done before the yearly meeting . ""^^ 

The house still proved to be too small. Planning to enlarge 

or replace the meeting house began again. ^^^ It was decided 

to replace it entirely. 30th of the nth month, 1698/9, 

"At this meeting John Thompson, Isaac Smart, 
Rotherah Morris and Richard Darkin brought in 
their report that they had put out the meeting 
house to be built, brick work to Richard Woodnutt 
and the woodwork to Robert Gillam.""-^ 

The new meeting house would be forty feet long by thirty 

feet wide.''^^ A final accounting of the expenses was 



"^ Ibid., 30th day of the 9th month of 1685. 

"^^ Ibid. , 27 2nd mo. 1686. 

"^^ Ibid., 26 day of che first mo. 1688. 

"^^ Ibid., 29th of the 6th month 1698. 

"^ Ibid., 30th of the 11th month, 1698/9. 

*^^ Ibid., 29th day of the 2 mo. 1699. This minute is a 
transcription of an action made by the Salem Quarterly 
Meeting, on the last day of the Salem General meeting, 1699 



283 

recorded in a monthly minute dated 30th day of the first 

month, 1702, 

£ - S - d 
Paid out for bricks, stone, lime and 
workmanship for the same 188 - 00 - 11 

for timber, boards, shingles and 

carpenter work 194 - 15 - 3 1/2 

laid out for iron work and nails, 

priming the house, glaising, drawing 

of articles of agreement and sundry 

expenses to the workmen 037 - 1 7 - 

to John Thompson for his trouble in 

overseeing the work 05 - 00 - 

The whole charge is 425-13-2 1/2"^° 

Not surprisingly, in light of the past, this building 

was enlarged as well, once, in 1717. Two surviving but 

undated accounts of building expenses survive in the records 

of the Salem Monthly Meeting and probably relate to this 

addition. The first receipt, referred to in the last line of 

the second, gives the size of the addition in its 

heading .'*''^ 

"Ye acount of ye Brick work for ye adicon of ye meten hous 
at Salem 25 by 20 by 12 ft hie." (Fig. 179) 

£ S d 



Bricks 15000 —————— 15 _ o - 

Lime - 60 bushels — — — — 05-0-0 



440 



Salem Monthly, 30th day of the first month, 1702 



'*^^ Receipts, Salem Monthly Meeting Misc. Papers, Salem 
Monthly Meeting Financial Records (Friends Historical 
Library, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA). 



284 
Sand - 12 Sd from ye River 02-8-0 
Laying Brick & ? find tenders? 09-12-0 

£ 32 = = 



This Computation made by me 

Robt Raines 

and 

A Computation of the Brick work and of the Scantling Timber 
Bords Shingles nails for the addition to the meeting house 
at Salem (Fig. 180) 

£ S d 

Scantling for 3 dore cases 75 foot 00-06-0 

Scantling for 5 window cases 144 foot — — 00-12 
13 joice 20 feet long each 260 foot - - - - 01-01-8 

2 plaits 25 foot long each 50 foot 00-04-2 

2 pare of rafters & coler beams 433 feet 01-16 
Scantling for Rafter feet & other uses 150 foot 00-16-6 
35 laths 25 foot each 875 foot — — — — 03-12-11 
2000 of Shingles at 45 Shillings each 1000 04-10-0 

60 pound of nails at 10 pence per pound 02-10-0 

2000 foot of bord at 3£ - 5s - per 1000 — — 06-10-0 
The Brick work 33£ referd to in another paper 33-00-0 

54 = 19 = 7"^2 
This house was in use until 1772 when the present 
meeting house (Fig 182) was constructed/"^ 25th of the 5th 



""2 Ibid. 

'^^ Salem Monthly Minutes, 29th day of the fifth mo. 
1717; 24th day 12th month, 1717, and Salem Quarter, 212. 



285 







-r 



^p^c^^i^'^^^^ 



Figure 179 

Reciept for Brickwork 

Salem Meeting House 

c. 1717 

Friends Historical Library 

Swarthmore College 



286 









Figure 180 

Building reciept 

Salem Meeting House 

c. 1717 

Friends Historical Library 

Swarthmore College 



287 

mo, 1772, "...The meeting adjorns to the usual time, to be 

held in the Court House in Salem if this house should be 

taken down as expected"*^'* 

William Ellis, a professional builder, was responsible 

for the present structure as is stated in a letter from him 

addressed to John Redman, the clerk of the Salem Monthly 

Meeting in 1796. 

"I also wish to shew the enclosed and enquire of 
Thomas Goodwin if Living, as he perhaps can inform 
thee something about this matter, as I boarded 
with him at the time I was building the meeting 
house of Friends ... "^^^ 

Many of a group of building receipts for this structure, 

surviving in the collection of the Friends Historical 

Library at Swarthmore College also bear his name.'*'*^ 

Included as Figure 181a and 181b is an accounting of the 

expenses for erecting this building. This last meeting house 

is located on East Broadway, at the head of Walnut Street, 

in Salem, New Jersey. The original partition has since been 



'^'^'^ Salem Monthly, 25th of the 5th mo. 1772. 

"^^ William Ellis to John Redman, May 12th 1796, Salem 
Monthly Meeting Miscellaneous papers 1685-1929, Salem 
Monthly Meeting Financial Records, Building of the Meeting 
House receipts, 1772-1796 (Friends Historical Library, 
Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA). Salem Quarter, 212 
states that William Ellis was a Philadelphia builder. There 
is no evidence in either Moss and Tatum, Carpenter Company 
Records or Philadelphia directories that this was the case. 

'^''^ Salem Monthly Meeting Miscellaneous papers 1685- 
1929, Salem Monthly Meeting Financial Records, Building of 
the Meeting House receipts, 1772-1796. 



288 



Figure 181a and 181b 

"Meeting House Debt to Charles Ellis, 

11 month 23 1772" 

Salem County Historical Society 



// 












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289 



290 



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^-/ % 








291 



Figure 182 

Salem Meeting House 

author's photo 



Figure 183 

Salem Orthodox Meeting House 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 




292 
removed and the balcony altered to create rooms for the 
display of meeting relics and a small library. 

Salem (Orthodox) 

"Our meeting house having been thus violently 
taken possesion of, and threatenings made by some 
of the seperatists to break whatever fastenings 
Friends should put on; this commitee with other 
concerned Friends, met on the third day following 
to concider whether it would be proper under these 
circumstances to try to attempt to occupy our 
meeting house; and after endevoring wieghtily to 
feel after the mind of truth on this on this very 
sorrowful and trying occasion believed it would 
tend most to the wealfare of the society and 
maintaniance of our peacable principles to 
withdraw from those sceens of disorder and hold 
our meetings in Friends school house. "^^^ 

The school house mentioned above was located on Margrets 

Lane, now Walnut Street. In the first month of 1828, 55 men, 

87 women and 108 children were listed as seperatists by the 

Salem Orthodox Friends and disowned. As their own numbers 

were only 23, 48, and 59 respectively, for all intensive 

purposes it was they who were out in the cold.*^® In 1837, 

Orthodox Friends purchased a lot of ground on the south side 

of West Broadway across from the old Salem Oak. In that same 

year, they constructed on that lot a small brick meeting 

house (Figs. 183, 184 and 185)."^^ It was regularly used by 



""^ Salem Monthly (Orthodox), 7m 2, 1828. 

"''^ Salem Quarter, 235. 

'^''^ Salem Monthly, 1st, 2m, 1837. A large number of 
building receipts survive in the collection of the Friends 
Historical Library Swarthmore College, Salem Quarter Meeting 
Papers Misc. Documents. 



293 

Salem Orthodox Quakers until 1941 when the building was 
finally sold/^° Since that date a greatly remodelled 107 
West Broadway has been home to buisness and legal offices. 

Seaville 

The Seaville Friends Meeting House (Figs. 186, 187, 188 
and 189) was erected in 1763. "One new Meeting house built 
in the Upper Precinct of Cape May.""^^ This date is 
confirmed by the first deed to the property held by Friends 
which is dated 7th of 3rd, 1764."^^ It has sometimes been 
assumed that this primitive meeting house was in fact older 
in date. The date usually given, 1727, was probably based on 
a minute of the Great Egg Harbor and Cape May Monthly 
Meeting, Dated 3rd mo. 29th, 1727, "...it is concluded to 
build a Meeting House by Jacob Garretson's and Jacob 
Garretson to give one acre of land for the servis of s'd 
meeting. .. ""^-^ That citation most certainly referred to the 
meeting house at Beesley's Point. Matlack reported that he 
had heard that the Meeting House at Beesley's Point had been 
removed to Seaville. This is also unlikely. 



'^^° Salem Quarter, 235, and "Summary of Deeds on 107 W. 
Broadway, Salem N.J.," Typescript, Prepared 1941. 

^^^ Minutes of the Great Egg Harbor and Cape May Monthly 
Meeting (Friends Historical Library, Swarthmore College, 
Swarthmore, PA), 5th day 9th mo, 1763. 

^^^ Salem Quarter, 266. 

*^^ Great Egg Harbor and Cape May Monthly, 3rd mo. 29th, 
1727. 




294 



Figure 184 

rear, 

Salem Orthodox Meeting House 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



Figure 185 

rear , 

Salem Orthodox Meeting House 

author ' s pnoto 




295 




Figure 186 

Seaville Meeting House 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 




296 



Figure 187 

Seaville Meeting House 

author's photo 



Figure 188 

rear, 

Seaville Meeting House 

author's photo 




297 




Figure 189 

interior, 

Seaville Meeting House 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



298 

Meeting houses at Beesley's Point and Seaville were 
used alternatingly by the Great Egg Harbor and Cape May 
Monthly Meeting for several years. *^ The Cape May 
(Seaville) Preparative Meeting was discontinued on 12mo, 
2nd, 1818/" Between 1860 and 1954 the meeting house was 
rarely used. By 1871 it had fallen into such disrepair that 
major alterations were required. George Ward "of Salem" had 
the women's portion of the meeting house demolished and the 
men's portion repaired . "^^ The surviving portion of the 
original Seaville Meeting House, now attached to a large 
twentieth-century addition, is located on the west side of 
Route 9 in Seaville, N.J. 

Upper Greenwich (Mickelton) 

As early as 1735, permission was given for Friends to 
hold meetings at the house of Gracie Faucit.'*^^ A minute of 
the Haddonfield Monthly Meeting, the 8th day of the first 
month of 1759, states that approval was given for the 
construction of a meeting house, "near Samuel 
Lippincott ' s . ""^ 

This meeting house was said to have been a one story 



^ Salem Quarter, 264. 

"" Salem Quarterly, 21st day of 8th month, 1817 
"" Salem Quarter, 267. 

"" Haddonfield Monthly, 11 8th mo 1736. 
"^ Ibid., 8th day 1 month 1759. 



299 

cedar structure near the corner of Quaker Road and Wolfert 
Station Road in Mickelton/^^ In 1798, a new brick meeting 
house (Figs. 190 and 191) was completed on a two acre lot at 
the corner of King's Highway and Democrat Street. ^^^ The 
date of construction is announced by a date stone located in 
the center of the main facade. The old meeting house was 
disassembled at that time and its timber used in the 
construction of horse sheds to service the new building .'*^^ 
A sounding board above the minister's bench is said to have 
been a unique but now missing part of the original 
construction. '^^^ Additions to the building have been made 
repeatedly, once in 1815, and a second forty foot by 30 foot 
cement block addition in 1919.''^^ In 1929, the gallery 
floor was leveled to make four classrooms .*^^ Major 
renovations were undertaken to both the exterior and the 
interior of this meeting house in 1942. "Knotty pine" 
panelling was added to the building's interior. New windows 
were added to the meeting space, and the porch, a later 
addition, was further extended. A plywood floor and wall to 



"^^ Gushing and Sheppard, 209 



^""^ Matlack, 579. 

"^^ Salem Quarter, 176 

^^^ Ibid., 176. 

"" Ibid. , 177 and 181 , 

'" Ibid., 181 . 



300 
wall carpeting were laid in 1960.^^^ 

Upper Penn's Neck (Pedricktown) 

The first Upper Penn's Neck Meeting House was 
constructed in 1796, the same year the meeting achieved 
preparative meeting status. ''^^ It was a frame structure 
located on land given to the meeting by Isaac and Hannah 
Pedrick and which stood near the cross roads of Mill Street 
and Railroad Avenue. "^^ At a Salem Monthly Meeting in 
November 1809, permission waS granted to Upper Penn's Neck 
Meeting to remove the small Allowaystown meeting house and 
its benches and stoves, and make use of them in 
Pedricktown.'*^® It is not known to whether the surviving 
photo of the Upper Penn's Neck Meeting House (Fig. 192) 
represents either the older Upper Penn's Neck Meeting House 
expanded or the Allowaystown Meeting House moved intact to a 
new location, or a totally new meeting house built of old 
materials. In either case the building was again altered. 
Michner stated it was "rebuilt" in 1857."^^ The History of 
Gloucester, Salem and Cumberland Counties, states that an 



^"^ Ibid. , 181-182. 

*^^ Minutes of the Upper Penn's Neck Preparative Meeting 
(Friends Historical Library, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, 
PA), 14th day of the 12th Month, 1797, and Ezra Michner, 48. 

"^^ Salem Quarter, 370, quoting deed of July 12, 1796. 

"^^ Salem Monthly, 27th of 11th mo. 1809. 

"^^ Michner, 48. 



301 




■i-?3«.". T?r^- 



Figure 190 

Upper Greenwich Meeting House 

author's photo 

Figure 191 

Upper Greenwich Meeting House 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 




302 
upper floor was added circa 1859/^° Upper Penn's Neck 
Preparative minutes confirm that on the 27th day of the 
ninth month of 1857 a committee estimated the cost of 
"repairing the meeting house at four hundred dollars . ""^^ 
In 1867, the Upper Penn's Neck Preparative Meeting was 
discontinued by consent of the Pilesgrove Monthly. *^^ In 
1900, the Philadelphia Hicksite Yearly Meeting reported that 
the Pedricktown Meeting had been laid down/^-^ The property 
was sold in 1901 and the meeting house torn down. As of 
1929, the location of the old meeting house was occupied by 
an automotive repair shop owned by Lloyd W. Thorn. An out 
building (Fig. 193) was said to contain one of the meeting 
house's original doors. "^'^ 

Woodbury (Redbank, Woodbury Creek) 

The first Woodbury Meeting House seems to have been 
erected sometime soon after May 26, 1696 when John Wood 
deeded a 1 00 x 70 foot lot for use as a graveyard and for 
the construction thereon of a meeting house. "^^ 



''^° Gushing and Sheppard, 445. 

"^^ Upper Penn's Neck Preparative, 9th mo. 24th 1857. 

"'^ Ibid., nth mo. 26th, 1867. 

^''^ Matlack, 583. 

^^^ Matlack, 581, and Salem Quarter, 371. 

"''^ Boedeker, 3, and Salem Quarter, 275. 




303 



' S . r ■• '* '"■ ••' 2 a * # •• s* * ' 






Figure 192 

Pedricktown Meeting House 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



Figure 193 

garage out building, 

Pedricktown 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 




304 
On the ninth month, 15th, 1715, 

"John Swanson of Philadelphia conveyed to John 
Ladd, Henry Wood and John Cooper, Yeoman, all of 
the county of Glouchester, western province of New 
Jersey, trustees, one acre of ground ... lying on 
the west side of Woodbury Creek... in trust to 
erect a Meetinghouse upon.'"*^^ 

John Cooper, an influential local Quaker, is said to 
have been the builder. "^^ This meeting house is believed to 
survive, altered, as the south west section of the present 
meeting house (Fig. 194) located on the northern side of 
Broad Street, then King's Highway, just south of Woodbury 
Creek in the town of Woodbury itself. ^^^ 

In 1783, it was proposed to the Salem Quarterly Meeting 
that it should establish a new monthly meeting to be held at 
Woodbury.'*''^ Woodbury Friends, in anticipation of the new 
meeting, were planning to enlarge their meeting house. *®° 



Recorded in the Extracts of the Minutes of the 
Woodbury Preparative Meeting (Friends Historical Library, 
Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA). Deed dated 21st of 
Sept. 1715 and recorded in Records of Gloster County Book 5 
Fol. 145:146. 

"^^ Dawes Watson. "Historical Sketch of Woodbury 
Meeting," 1915 Typescript Pamphlet Group 1, Woodbury Monthly 
Meeting (Friends Historical Library, Swarthmore College, 
Swarthmore, PA) . 



478 



Salem Quarter, 28' 



"^^ Salem Quarterly, 19th day of 5th mo. 1783. 

*^° Minutes of the Woodbury Monthly Meeting (Friends 
Historical Library, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA), 4 
mo. 11th 1783. 



305 




Figure 194 

Woodbury Meeting House 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



306 

4 mo. 1st, 1783, 

"At a meeting of the committee of eighteen friends 
of Woodbury Meeting to consider what may be the 
most eligible way of enlarging our meeting house; 
are unanimously of opinion, that an addition of 26 
feet back, the length of the present house with 
two more galleries will be the most convenient way 
of enlarging the same; the walls to be carried the 
height of the present walls. "^^^ 

The or: intation of the building is believed to have 
been c'- ..iged with the enlargement."^^ After the time of the 
1827 se ation, both Hicksites and Orthodox Quakers shared 
the ^-ilaj.ng, holding meetings on opposite sides of the 
wooden partition, the Orthodox Meeting in the building's 
older half."^^ 

In 1950 and 1951, the meeting house was "erne eled. The 
west end was divided to create four rooms, ore for a 
furnace, two restrooms and a kitchen. The ge .lery was 
floored over and converted into classroom space and plumbing 
was installed.*®" 

Woolwich (Mullica Hill) 

The Woolwich Meeting was established, on a trial basis, 
in 1797. The meeting was at first housed in a school house 



"®^ Ihid., 4mo. 1st, 1783. 

"^2 Salem Quarter, 281 . 

"^2 Salew Quarter, 284-285. 

"®" Woodbury Preparative, Account book, 4 mo. 5, 1950 



307 

constructed in 1788.*^^ 

"Where as Jacob Spicer late of Woolwich, by his 
last will, dated 10th of 7th Mo 1779, gave to the 
people call'd Quakers, one and a half acre of land 
at Mullica's Hill for a burying ground and to 
build a meeting house upon it, it being before 
this meeting was divided from Haddonf ield; and 
that the meeting nominated Benjamin Hooton, David 
Brown, James Whitall Junr . , Amos Cooper, Samuel 
Mickle and Josuha Paul, (the better to secure the 
said lot) to take deed from Abigal Rudrow the heir 
of the said Jacob Spicer: which was done and the 
said deed lodged in the hands of said David Brown, 
And the Friends of Greenwich (Upper) Preparative 
meeting having applied to this meeting, for 
liberty to construct a school-house on said lot-It 
was now considered . "^^^ 

This request was approved by the Woodbury Monthly Meeting on 
the 15th day of the 7th mo. 1788."^^ It would not be until 
1800 that a full preparative meeting would be created.'*^ 
And the monthly meeting would not be born until the 
twentieth century. "^^ The meeting house (Fig. 195) is 
located in the southern portion of the town of Mullica Hill 
and is situated on a large triangular plot of ground at the 
corner of South Main Street and Route 45. The building was 
constructed in 1808. A fact confirmed by the building's date 



"^^ Woodbury Monthly, 15th Of 8th mo 1797, and 12th day 
9th mo. 1797. 



Ibid. , 15th 4th mo. 171 



486 

"^^ Ibid., 15th day of the 7th mo. 1788. 

"^ Salem Quarterly, 1 1 mo 1 7 1800. 

"^^ Salem Quarter, 189, and Matlack, 567 



308 

stone. In a 1897 paper, delivered by Hope L. Moore, it was 
reported that soon after the building was completed, "there 
arose a great wind and leveled one gable end to the 
ground. "325 The building's interior partition was removed 
in 1897 and sometime afterwards the gallery was covered over 
so that a second floor could be created to house the Quaker 
Sunday school. 2'*° 




Figure 195 

Mullica Hill Meeting House 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



Quoted in Salem Quarter, 190, 
Ibid., 196. 



309 

Meeting Houses Of the Shrewsbury and Rahway Quarterly 
Meetings 

Amboy 

The first mention of the meeting place of the Amboy meeting 

is vague as to in what situation it was housed. 

"At the M.M. held in Amboy the 8th of the 10th mo. 
1 686 .. .Friends agreed to pay three pounds money of 
this province for the yearly rent of the meeting 
room: & the year to begin this day likewise finds 
it necessary that there be fix formes for seats in 
the meeting-room, the making of which John Laing 
takes into consideration...'"*^^ 

A following minute makes it more apparent that the meeting 

room was actually an independent structure. 

"At monthly meeting held in Amboy the 11th day of 
the 11th month 1687... It being proposed to bring 
Contributions toward the Rent of the Meeting-house 
John Barclay informed the yearly rent was 3L 
(pounds) ."^^^ 

This meeting fell under the control of George Kieth in 

1702 and after such date are no longer considered Quakers. 

The meeting became part of a larger body of Anglicans and no 

other information concerning their seventeenth century 

meeting place is known to survive. ^^'* 



"^^ Minutes of the Woodbridge Monthly Meeting (Friends 
Historical Library, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA), 8th 
of the 10th mo. 1686. 

'*^^ Ibid., nth day of the 11th month 1687. 

*^^ Matlack, 598. 



310 
Hardwick (Great Meadows) 

Matlack places the date of the Hardwick Meeting House 
at 1752. It is definite that in 1749, "Friends at the 
Meadows" requested that the Kingwood Monthly meeting appoint 
a committee to help them choose a place to site their 
meeting house. ^^^ 

The second meeting house was constructed in 1763, 

"Agreeable to the direction of Last Quarterly 
meeting, we have appointed Peter Schmuck and Jacob 
Lundy to attend the committee who are to concider 
the rebuilding of Hardwick Meeting House in order 
to inform of our agreement concerning the plan of 
the said house which is as followeth viz. 40 feet 
long and 25 feet wide in the clear and one story 
hight."^^^ 

Kingwood Monthly Meeting 10 mo 13 1763, "Friends have 

concluded to build their meeting house at Hardwick 40 feet 

long and 20 feet wide in the clear with one chimney and coal 

hearth. ""^^ 

The last meeting held at the Hardwick Meeting House was 

in 1855."^^ Thaddeus S. Kenderdine described the site of 

the meeting house in 1906. 

"From here we went on foot to where we at length 
found the remains of Hardwick meeting. This was on 
the North side of the Pequest, here spanned by an 



*^^ Minutes of the Kingwood Monthly Meeting (Friends 
Historical Library, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA), 8th 
mo. 12 1749. This meeting house stood until 1763. 



Ibid. , 10 mo. 2 1763 



496 

"^^ Ibid. , 10 mo, 13 1763. 
"^^ Matlack, 603. 



311 

iron bridge. On one side of this, in the modest 
ways of such officials, the Freeholders (as they 
are called here), have had their names carved in 
enduring cast-iron tablets rivited to a girder for 
that purpose. Of the meeting house we found 
nothing but the foundation walls, now in alien 
ownership, and the graveyard in care of Plainfield 
Friends, forty miles away... The more recently 
built meeting house stood on the higher part of 
the grounds and facing the yard from 50 yards to 
the north, and amid a group of trees, some of them 
seemingly old enough to have shaded the first log 
structure built in 1752, and torn down 12 years 
afterward to give place of one of stone... It was 
30 feet by 40 and built of limestone cemented with 
old fashioned mortar. '"'^^ 

In 1855 the house and graveyard, were sold to Jesse 

Adams. The building was raised and a school house was 

erected on the same foundation preserving the older 

building's chimney and its date stone. ^°° A photograph of a 

primitive drawing of the Hardwick Meeting House survives 

(Fig. 195). The site of this meeting house is located near 

Allamuchy . 



Plainfield 

The first Plainfield meeting house was erected in 1731 

Woodbridge Monthly Meeting 17th 4th 1731, 

"this meeting appoints Abraham Shotwell and 
Benjamin Smith to manigth building of the meeting 
house near John Laing . . .demensions the said house 



"^^ Thaddeus S. Kenderdine, "Lundy's Birthplace, I 
Hardwick Meeting," Friends Intelligencer, volume LXIII 
Number 52, Twelfth month 30, 1905, 818-822. 

^°° Matlack, 504. 



312 




Figure 196 

Hardwick Meeting House 

sketch 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



313 

not to exceed 24 foot square 14 foot betweine 
joynts. ."^°^ 

In 1731 the Monthly Meeting at Woodbridge granted 

permission to build a meeting house on lands given by John 

Laing, which was afterwards known as "Plainfield Meeting 

House in the woods." 

This building was replaced in 1788, 

"The Friends appointed to endevor to find out a 
suitable place to build a meeting house at 
Plainfield report, they all agreed that a lott of 
land containing three acres near the house of John 
Webster the third would be a suitable place for 
said house to be built on and they propose that 
the size of the house should be about thirty four 
by forty eight feet."^"^ 

The fate of the 1731 meeting house is clearly spelled out in 

the Monthly Meeting minutes, 

"The committee appointed to build the meeting 

house at Plainfield are at liberty to make use of 

the Timber or such part of it as there is occasion 

for, on the lot on which the old meeting house 

stands for the use of the new house intended to be 
built. "5°3 

"Partitions were removed in 1906, glass vestibules have 
been lately introduced for warmth in the winter and to 
deaden the noise at all times made by the almost ceaseless 
roar and clang of steam and trolley cars rushing by."^°^ 



^°^ Woodbridge Monthly, 17th 4th 1731. 

^°^ Woodbridge Monthly, 15th of 11th 1787. 

^" Ibid., 12th month 19 1787. 

^°^ Thaddeus S. Kenderdine. "Plainfield Meeting," 
Friends Intelligencer, Volume LXIII, Number 14, Fourth Month 
7, 1906, 209-211. 




314 



ure 197 

infield Meeting House 
Chalkey Matlack Collection 
torical Society of PennsYl\ 



Figure 198 

Plainfield Orthodox Meeting House 
T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



'^. f"^ 




315 
This meeting house (Fig. 197) is located in Plainfield on 
the north side of Watchung Avenue. 

Plainfield (Orthodox) 

Plainfield Orthodox Friends first met after the 

separation at the house of Eliza Shotwell.^°^ 

"The orthodox branch of our society which formerly 
had a holding in Plainfield is now extinct ... Some 
twenty five years ago the meeting house built 
after the "separation" was replaced by a large and 
substancial two story brick structure surrounded 
by a tall-columned portico, probably costing 
$10,000. This is a matter of comment as the 
meeting was laid down five years ago."^°^ 

The Plainfield Orthodox Meeting House (Fig. 198) was 
sold sometime just after 15th of 7th 1908 after all meetings 
in Plainfield had been laid down when an offer of $5000 was 
tendered. ^°^ 

In 1929, when Matlack visited Plainfield, it had become 

"the 'Recreation Rooms' of the 'Franklin Council 
No. 41 Jounior order of United American Mecanics.' 
There has been a large addition joined to the 
house at the rear for a bowling alley... It is 
located at No. 311 east Front Street. "^°^ 



^°^ Minutes of the Rahway and Plainfield Monthly Meeting 
(Friends Historical Library, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, 
PA), 6mo, 19th 1828. 

^°^ Kenderdine, "Plainfield Meeting," 210. 

507 



508 



Rahway and Plainfield Monthly, 16th of 7th mo. 1908 
Matlack, 608. 



316 
Quakertown (Kingwood, Fairview, Bethlehem) 

Matlack quotes a deed dated March 20, 1733 which 

conveyed four acres of land from Jacob Doughty to Samuel 

Laige, Samuel Willson, Edward Rockhill, John Stevenson and 

Joseph King, "for the use of the meeting" as a probable 

indication of the date of the construction of the first 

meeting house in Quakertown, N.J.^°^ 

Kingwood Monthly Meeting, 11, 12mo, 1744, 

"This meeting taking into consideration the 
necessity of Building a new meeting house in this 
place have unanimously agreed to at the necessity 
thereof before the next Quarterly meeting .. "^^° 

Burlington Quarterly Meeting, 25th day, 12th mo. 1744, 

"The monthly Meeting of Friends at Bethlehem 
having made application for liberty to build a 
meetinghouse there, that they already have not 
being large enough, this meeting consents to their 
proposal. And that the said be built according to 
the directions of the monthly meeting, to wit, 
about thirty six feet long and twenty six feet 
wide."^" 

Burlington Quarterly Meeting, 11 day, 1 mo. 1744/5, 

"Kingwood with this meeting agrees that the said 
meeting house shall be built according to the 
above dementions in the clear, and that it shall 
be built of stone. "^^^ 

Kingwood Monthly Meeting, 14th day, 3 mo. 1747, 

"We are building our new meeting house here thirty 



^°^ Ihid., 124. 

^^° Kingwood Monthly, 11, 12mo, 1744. 

^" Burlington Quarterly, 25th of the 12th month 1744 

^^^ Ibid. , 1 1 Imo 1744/5. 



317 

nine feet long & twenty seven feet wide and we 
expect by computation that the cost will amount to 
one hundred pounds subscribed towards discharging 
the same. 



i5l3 



Soon after the meeting house caught fire and required 

wholesale repair, Kingwood Monthly Meeting, 17th day, 2nd 

mo. 1752, 

"This Meeting appoints Jeremiah Williams to agree 
with suitable workmen to Repair the meeting house 
of Friends in Kingwood (Known by the name of 
Bethelhem Meetinghouse) in such manner and form as 
they think best."^^'' 

Burlington Quarterly Meeting, 31st day, 8th mo. 1752, 

"This meeting observing something slender in the 
report from Bethlehem and being dissatisfied with 
that was informed by some Friends not of that 
meeting that a difference was among them relating 
to the building of the roof of their meeting 
house, this meeting therefor thought it necessary 
to consider the convieniency and inconvieniency of 
both proposals and upon the whole is of opinion 
that the form of the roof of said meeting house as 
before built is much the best both as in regards 
to the convieniency of women Friends and 
convieniency of galleries ... "^^^ 

Kingwood Monthly Meeting, 9th day 5th mo. 1754. 

"We have to general satisfaction finished 
rebuilding our meeting house according to the 
former mode as we were advised by the Quarterly 
meeting so far that we hold our meetings there it 
being about as near completion as it was before it 
was burnt the whole cost of rebuilding amounts to 
upwards of one hundred and seven pounds ... "^^^ 

Quakertown was transferred from two different 



^^^ Kingwood Monthly, 14, 3, 1747. 

^^^ Kingwood Monthly, 17th 2nd mo 1752. 

^^^ Burlington Quarterly, 31st of 8th mo 1752, 

^^^ Kingwood Monthly, 9th 5th 1754. 



318 
quarterlies at different times in its existence. It began as 
part of the Shrewsbury Quarterly, became a part of the 
Burlington Quarter in 1785 and was finally transferred to 
Bucks Quarter in 1859.^^^ It was reported to the 
Philadelphia Yearly Meeting at Race Street in the Spring of 
1905 by the Bucks Quarter that "Quakertown, N.J. Monthly and 
Particular meeting have been laid down and the few remaining 
members thereof joined to Buckingham Monthly Meeting. "^^® 
This meeting house survives (Fig. 199 and 200) and is 
located in the village of Quakertown, Hunderton County, 
approximately four miles west of Flemington, New Jersey. 

Rahway 

The first Rahway Meeting House was built in 1757. 

Woodbridge Monthly Meeting, 20th 1st Month, 1757, 

"Friends at Rahway have repeatedly made 
application to the monthly meeting for leave to 
build a meeting house at that place... it is 
referred to the Quarterly meeting ... "^^^ 

Woodbridge Monthly Meeting, 17th of 2nd, 1757, 

"The Friends appointed to attend the Quarterly 
meeting of Shrewsbury have brought a paper from 
thence signed by the clerk which declare it to be 
the solid sence of that meeting that a meeting 
house aught to be built at Rahway .... "^^° 



^^^ Matlack, 125. 

^^^ Ibid. , 126. 

^^^ Woodbridge Monthly, 20th 1st month 1757 

^^° Ibid., 17th of 2nd 1757. 




Figure 199 

Sketch, 

Quakertown Meeting House 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



Figure 200 

Quakertown Meeting House 

author's photo 



^^':- 

:;i^ 







320 
Woodbridge Monthly Meeting, 17th 3mo, 1757, 

"The Friends appointed to size the meeting house 
at Rahway reporte they have considered it agreed 
that it shall be 34 foot long & 30 foot wide."^^^ 

The Rahway Meeting House was expanded in order to 

accommodate the new Rahway and Plainfield Monthly Meeting 

and the Woodbridge Monthly Meeting. ^^^ It was located on 

Main Street. ^^^ W. Woodford Clayton stated that this first 

Rahway Meeting House was still standing at the time of the 

writing of his History of Union County N.J. in 1882. He 

stated that the original building was abandoned in 1804 when 

the present meeting house was constructed. It was loaned to 

the First Methodist Society to hold services in before the 

erection of their Church. Afterwards it was home to George 

W. Hall's hardware store and it was afterwards the place of 

buisness of a Rahway Tea Merchant (1882).^^'^ 

The second Rahway Meeting House (Fig. 201) was located 

on Irving Street at the Head of Poplar and was a 50' x 35' 

two story frame structure built in 1804.^^^ Both meeting 

houses have since been demolished; the 1804 structure sold 



^21 Ibid. , 17th 3mo 1757. 

^^^ Woodbury Monthly, 16th 8mo 1769. 

^^^ W. Woodford Clayton. History of Middlesex and Union 
Counties, New Jersey (1882), 270-272. 

''' Ibid. 

^^^ Matlack, 609-610, and Clayton, 272. 



321 
in 1893 and demolished at that time.^^^ 

Rahway (Orthodox) 

The Rahway Orthodox Meeting of the Society of Friends 

first met in the local Friend's school house. Then in 

private homes due to disturbances caused by the Hicksite 

faction. ^^-^ This changed in 1855. 

"We of the committee appointed in 9mo 1853 to 

procure a lot and erect a suitable meeting house 

for the use of friends of Rahway and also to 

purchase a lot for a burial ground there now 

report that we purchased a lot on the east side of 

second street and between New Street and Milton 

Avenue in Lower Rahway in the 8th mo 1854 which 

cost one thousand + forty nine 35/100 dollars and 

erected a brick meeting house there on thirty two 

feet front by thirty eight feet deep, at a cost of 

two thousand eight hundred + thirty eight 17/100 

Dollars including fencing, filling up lot, 

grading, paving, painting etc making the whole 

cost of ground and building Three thousand eight 

hundred & eighty seven 52/100 dollars. This house 

has been used by the meeting since first month 
1855.-^28 

The meeting house (Fig. 202) was located on Irving 
between Lewis and Milton Avenues. Its upper story was 
occupied at the time of Clayton's work by a school. It was 
demolished in 1922 and its bricks were reused in the 
construction of the Rahway Trust Company Building erected on 



^26 Matlack, 610. 

^^^ Rahway and Plainfield Preparative, 17th 9th mo 1828. 

^^^ Minutes of the Rahway Orthodox Monthly Meeting 
(Friends Historical Library, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, 
PA), 15th of 10th mo. 1857. 



322 
the same site.^^^ 

Randolph (Mendam) 

16th 6mo, 1758, 

"The Friends appointed to size the meetinghouse at 
Mendam and compute the cost reported that they 
think it proper it should be 25 foot wide + 25 
long and that it will cost L 73 or something over 
that... James Brotherland & Jacob Laing appointed 
to take a deed for the land where the meeting 
house is to be built and to have the oversight of 
the building said house"^'^° 

Matlack, quoted the date of this deed as 8mo, 5th 1758.^^^ 

Thaddeus S. Kenderdine described the building's 

interior in 1906, 

"But the inside of the meeting house was a 
revelation to one curious of ancient architecture 
in its line, and suggestive of primitive ways of 
worship and of sacrifices to its accomplishment as 
well as a source of speculation to those 
interested in the claim that the society of 
Friends was the first to recognize the mutual 
rights of the sexes in meeting affairs, in view of 
the inequalities shown in the arrangements of the 
men's and women's ends of the building, the 
interior is 24 by 25 feet, the men's part of the 
building, the greater portion, with its usual 
gallery, while on the other side of the partition 
the seats are all on one level, perhaps the only 
example of its kind. So despite George Fox's 
promulgation of equal rights of the sexes in 
meeting affairs, the women of Randolf were placed 
in a lower plane than the men in the ways of 
worship and in the transaction of buisness. Every 
thing is of the simplest and rudest construction 
in the inside fittings. What are known as shutters 



^^^ Matlack, 610-611, and Clayton, 272. 
"° Woodbridge Monthly, 16th 6mo. 1758. 
"^ Matlack, 512. 




323 



Figure 201 

Rahway Meeting House 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



Figure 202 

Rahway Orthodox Meeting House 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 




324 

consist of two battered, horizontal doors, ten 
feet long and three feet high, each side of the 
middle doorway, and held in place with wooden 
buttons, while hanging from the overhead cross- 
beam are corresponding traps which swing down to 
meet the lower division. Between is a rude door 
with wooden latch and the conventional latch- 
string of our ancestral log house hanging from 
it .. .Underneath the floor at the east end was an 
excavation two feet deep and four by eight in 
area, in which we were told was once a flag stone, 
under which a fire from charcoal burned in winter 
weather. This was during the ten years after the 
meeting house was built; after this an iron 
furnace was introduced, made at the Hibernia 
foundry, five miles north of Dover... In 1845 a 
more modern stove was installed and in its 
covering of rust is there still... The men's door 
was fronting the gallery while the women came 
through the doorway shown in the right side of the 
picture (a side entrance)""^ 

This meeting house (Fig. 203) survives and has recently 

been renovated. It is located less than two miles south of 

Dover in Randolph Township, Morris County. 



Shrewsbury 

Shrewsbury is generally held to be the oldest Friends 
Meeting in New Jersey. It was established by a small number 
of Quakers who had migrated south from New England, 
especially Connect icut . ^"^^ The first mention of a meeting 
house erected here comes from none other than George Fox 
himself. Shrewsbury was the only New Jersey meeting in 
existence when George Fox travelled through this area in 



^^^ Kenderdine, "Lundy's Birthplace," 5-7. 

^^^ Benjamin Olds. Historical Collections of the State 
of New Jersey (New Haven: John W. Barber and Henry Howe, 
1861), 358. 



325 



1672 



"We got at length to Shrewsbury in East Jersey and 
on the First day of the Week had a precious 
meeting there; to which Friends and other People 
came far; and the Blessed presence of the Lord was 
with us. The Same week we had a men's and women's 
meeting out of most parts of New Jersey. They are 
building a meeting-place in the midst of them; and 
there is a monthly and general meeting set up 
which will be of great servis in those parts in 
keeping up the gospel ... "^"^ 

On the subject of the Shrewsbury Meeting House, The 

History of the New Jersey Coast in Three Centuries by 

William Nelson stated, 

"At Shrewsbury the Trustees of the Friends Meeting 
purchased land in 1695, and erected a brick 
meeting-house which was occupied until 1816, and 
in 1817 another edifice was erected on an 
adjoining lot. The sect divided in 1827-8, the 
Hicksites came into possesion of the meeting-house 
and lot and the branch survives. The orthodox 
became practically extinct .. "^■'^ 

The minutes of the New Garden Monthly Meeting record 

the erection of a meeting house in Shrewsbury about 1721, 

"It is recommended from ye last quarterly meeting 
that a free contribution be made towards defraying 
ye charge of building Friends meeting house at 
Shrewsbury it being a Large meeting house for to 
accommodate Friends at ye Yearly Meeting & other 
occasion all meetings so this meeting recommends 



^^ George Fox. A Journal or Historical Account of the 
Life, Travels Sufferings, Christian Experiances and Labour 
of Love in the work of the ministry of that Ancient Emminent 
and Faithful Servant of Jesus Christ, George Fox (London: 
Thomas Northcott, 1694), p. 372. 

"^ William Nelson, Ed. The New Jersey Coast in Three 
Centuries, Vol / (New York: Lewis Publishing Co., 1902), 
102. 



326 




Figure 203 

Randolf Meeting House 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

.Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



327 

it to each preparative meeting & other occasional 
meetings. . ""^ 

The surviving building (Fig. 204) is that same one 

erected in 1816 and is located on the north east corner of 

the intersection of Sycamore Ave. and Broad St. (Rt. 35). 

Shrewsbury (Orthodox) 

Sometime soon following the 1827 Separation, Shrewsbury 
Orthodox Quakers bought an old house, one formerly owned by 
George Lippincott who had previously used the building as a 
Tavern. In 1841, this house and its accompanying lot were 
sold in order to purchase a new lot and build a meeting 
house (Fig. 205)."^ In 1848 the building was sold to 
Edward Vanuyem and later to Thaddeus Wilson. A new meeting 
house was then built on the west side of Broadway on a lot 
of ground "formerly owned by Benjamin Parker, Robert Parker, 
Seth Lippincott and Abigal Townsend and now quit claimed by 
Benjamin Parker. "^^ The lot containing a dwelling was 
divided in half, the dwelling house sold as such by Benjamin 
Parker and the other half of the lot sold to the Friends 



^^^ Minutes of the New Garden Monthly Meeting (Friends 
Historical Library, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA), 
9th, 10th mo. 1721 . 

^^^ Sharon Anderson and Meridith Newbury eds . "A Study 
of the Schools in Shrewsbury from Colonial Times Shrewsbury 
Boro School," Typescript, 1963, 7; Matlack, 619, and 
Shrewsbury Orthodox Monthly, 11th mo, 3rd 1841. 

^^ Shrewsbury Orthodox Monthly, 5th mo 4th 1842. 




Figure 204 

Shrewsbury Meeting House 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



Figure 205 

Shrewsbury Orthodox Meeting House 
T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania 




329 

Meeting on which a new meeting house was erected. ^^^ 

The building was afterwards used as a school and later 
as the town library. About 1880 the building was moved to a 
site on Broad St. north of Sycamore Ave., and used as a 
library and dramatic hall and called Library Hall. Between 
1908 and 1909 it served as the fire house. It was still 
later used as a garage by Mrs. Martin Marx. The building has 
been much modified, the front door boarded up and a door has 
been added on the south side of the building. ^° This 
building does not survive. 

Squan 

Because of their remoteness from other Friends, Quakers 
living in the vicinity of Manasquan, N.J. were given liberty 
in 1706 of holding their own monthly meeting. ^^ Matlack 
believes that the first Squan Meeting House was erected in 
that same year. Quoting a caption found on a photograph in 
the assembly room of the 1884 Squan Meeting House (Fig. 
206), he stated that the building as it was erected in 1706 
was a large two story frame meeting house and that the 
original was blown down in a gale that occurred 9 mo. 1809 
or 12. The building was reconstructed from the original 



"^ Shrewsbury Orthodox Monthly, 2nd mo 8th 1843. 

^° Anderson and Newbury, 7, and Matlack, 619. 

^^ Shrewsbury and Rahway Quarterly, 29th 8mo 1706. 



330 

timbers but on a modified smaller one story plan.^^ 

A new building was constructed in 1886 (Fig. 207). 

Friends Intelligencer, Seventh Mo. 31, 1886 

"The Friends living in Squan, New Jersey, having 
completed their new meeting-house, invited their 
friends to join them in holding the first meeting 
in it on the 21 instant... the meeting at Squan, 
which is a branch of Shrewsbury Monthly Meeting, 
is one of our older meetings. The ancient 
building, which has been moved into an adjoining 
field was used as a meeting house for more than 
one hundred and fifty years. The worn and decrepit 
shingles that cover its sides and roof present a 
marked contrast to the neat and attractive 
building that takes its place. This contrast 
between the old and the new is emphasized when we 
compare the stiff benches and tiny windows of the 
one with the cheery and comfortable interior of 
the other. ^^ 

The old building has since been removed. The rear annex 

to the present building was added about 1934.^^ The house 

is located on Metting House Rd . , bordering the Atlantic Ave. 

and Rt. 35 traffic circle. 



Squankum 

Franklin Ellis in History of Monmouth County 1885 



states 



"The Friends meeting house was built on lot of 
three fourths of an acre of land, sold for that 
purpose February 21, 1778, by Patterson Cook to 
George Parker, Obadiah Tilton, Britton White, 



^^ Matlack, 621 



(Untitled Article), Friends Intelligencer, Volume 
XLIII, Seventh Mo. 31, 1886, 485. 

^^ Matlack, 621 . 



331 







,(^f:ri^V -4 



«w?^^■^f*^••>♦':n'" 



Figure 206 

Old Squan Meeting House 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



Figure 207 

Squan 

T. Chalkey Matlack Collection 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 




332 

Benjamin Corlies, trustees of Friends' Meeting. 
The old building stood on the opposite side of the 
Stream from the mill. The old burial place still 
remains. The meeting has long since gone down. A 
school-house was built there in 1839."^^ 

The location of the meeting house and its accompanying grave 

yard became the village graveyard. ^^ 

The following deed, from the records of the New York 

Yearly Meeting, disputes the date given by Ellis. 

"Nov. 20, 1785 Hugh Jackson to George Parker, 
Obadiah Tilton and Benjamin Corlies for 40 
shillings 3/4 acre at a place called Squancome on 
North side of Manasquan River, east side of the 
road from Squancome bridge to Colt's neck.. for a 
plat to erect a meeting house + burial 
ground. 



Topanemus 

Little is known about the Quaker Meeting of Topanemus. 

The following quotes are taken from Edwin Salter and George 

Beekman's work, "Old Times in Old Monmouth", 

"Topanemus graveyard is about a mile west of the 
village of Marlborough. The lands of Hendrick E. 
Conover, of Freehold bound it on the north, east 
and south, and the Barricklo Farm on the west. It 
is on a high Knoll overlooking the surrounding 
country on every side. The Quaker meeting house 
stood on the northeast end. After the Quakers were 



^^ Ellis, 648. 

^' Ibid. 

^^ John Cox, Jr, Compiler. Inventory of the Church 
Archives in New York City, Religious Society of Friends, A 
Catalogue of Records in Possession or relating to, the two 
New York Yearly Meetings of the Religious Society of Friends 
and Their subordinate meetings (The Historical Records 
Survey W.P.A., NYC, 1940), 60. 



333 

converted to Episcopacy by the renegade George 
Keith, it became the place of meeting for that 
sect, until the present church edifice in Freehold 
town was built. This was some time before the 
Revolution, "^^s 

Salter's work included the following extract from George 

Kieth's Journal, 

"October 10, 1702- We went to the meeting of the 
Quakers at Toponemes in Freehold in East Jersey, 
who used to Keep a separate meeting from the other 
Quakers for their gross errors and joined with me 
and my friends in the separation about 
1692. .."^5 



Woodbridge 

The Woodbridge Meeting was first organized in 1686 and 
became a monthly meeting by 1689. The monthly meeting was 
discontinued in 1769 and the meeting was discontinued 
entirely in 1769."° 

Land for the meeting house was obtained on the 14th day 
of the 2nd month, 1707. "On the north by a highway on ye 
west by land now in the possesion of Benjamin Dunham, on ye 
South and east by land of the said John Allen"^^^ "Building 
was commenced, twenty feet by thirty feet between ye cill 
and plate""^ A minute dated 15 10 mo 1709 called for 



^^ Salter, 238. 

^5 Ibid. 

"° Matlack, 628 

"^ Clayton, 575 

"^ Ibid. , 574. 



334 
William Robinson to get boards for the floor of the meeting 
house and to arrange for bricks for the chimney it also 
ordered Nathaniel Fitz Randolf to get Shingling nails, 
clapboards and nails. ^^^ The meeting house was completed by 
the 15th Of the 10th mo, 1713.^^ The meeting property was 
sold, in 1784, after its 1759 discontinuance . ^^^ 



"^ Woodbridge Monthly, 15 1 o mo 1709 
^^ Clayton, 575. 
^^^ Matlack, 528. 



335 
Glossary 

Taken in an abridged form from the "Guide to Geneological 
Research at Friends Historical Library," Friends Historical 
Library of Swarthmore College. 

Acknowledgement - A formal, written statement of apology by 
an offending member to the meeting for having acted in a 
manner contrary to the rules of discipline. 

Birthright member - A person whose parents are both members 
of the Society of Friends, thus making the person a Friend 
from birth. 

Convinced Friend - A person who is not a birthright Friend 
but who joins the Society. 

Discipline - A book compiling rules of behavior for Friends 
bearing on all matters of church government such as 
qualification, description and transfer of membership; 
duties of ministers; methods of filing appeals; and 
attitudes toward marriage. Also refers in a more general way 
to the entire body of rules and tenants established by the 
various meetings which over the course of time have defined 
what it means to be a member of the Society of Friends. 



336 
Disownment - The involuntary termination of membership in a 
meeting when a member of a meeting acts contrary to 
established discipline. Reasons for disownment have changed 
over time, often reflecting contemporary societal mores. 

Elders - A small group of men and women appointed to assist 
and also oversee the ministers. 

Gurneyite Friends (also called "Evangelical Friends") - 

Following the teachings of English Quaker minister and 
reformer, John Joseph Gurney (1788 - 1847), Gurneyites were 
evangelical Quakers believing in the direct and immediate 
work of the Holy Spirit based on systematic study of the 
Scriptures and in the centrality to Christianity of the 
doctrine of atonement. 

Half-Yearly Meeting - A meeting held twice a year, composed 
of monthly meetings within a geographical area, and with the 
responsibilities of a quarterly meeting. 

Hicksite Friends - The Friends called "Hicksite," resulting 
from the Separation of 1827, placed special emphasis on the 
Inward Light, a divine spark within each person. They 
objected to creedal tests. Originally inspired by New York 
minister Elias Hicks (1748 - 1830), these Friends became 
increasingly liberal over the decades. 



337 
Indulged Meeting - A newly formed meeting for worship which 
requests and is granted the care and oversight of a local 
monthly meeting. 

Monthly Meeting - The basic unit of Quaker administration, 
which holds regular monthly business meetings. Only Quakers 
could participate. It has responsibility for care of 
members, authorizes removals and marriages, maintains 
discipline, considers the queries, manages meeting property, 
fosters social concerns, and reports regularly to the 
Quarterly Meeting. Business meetings in theory are held in 
spirit of worship, and are so in effect meetings for worship 
for conducting business. 

Orthodox Friends - Members of a branch of Quakers resulting 
from the Separation of 1827 who were evangelical and 
stressed the Jesus Christ of history and reliance on the 
Bible as the authoritative source of religious truth. 

Overseer - A member of committee of overseers responsible 
for the welfare and discipline of members of the monthly 
meeting . 

Particular Meeting - A formally-established meeting for 
worship under the care of the monthly meeting. 



338 
Preparative Meeting - A regularly-organized business meeting 
of a single congregation which prepared business to be 
presented to the monthly meeting. The cope of business as 
recorded in its minutes was normally limited to responses to 
queries and matters of property and school oversight. Most 
preparative meetings within the Philadelphia Yearly Meeting 
have become monthly meetings or have been discontinued. 

Quarterly Meeting - Meetings for business held four times 
per year, attended by representatives of all monthly 
meetings in a county or region. It is an intermediary 
between the monthly and yearly meeting, serves as an 
appellate body for disciplinary matters, and considers 
problems too large for a local meeting to solve. A quarterly 
meeting hold the authority to establish or discontinue a 
monthly, preparative, or particular meeting for worship. It 
collects financial assessments from each monthly meeting in 
accordance with the quota established by the Philadelphia 
Yearly Meeting. 

Queries - A formal set of questions, first adopted by the 
Philadelphia Yearly Meeting in 1743 and revised periodically 
since then, which were to be answered in writing by 
preparative, monthly and quarterly meetings and reported to 
the yearly meeting. The queries concern conduct of 
individuals and practices of the meetings and provide one 



339 
means of assuring uniformity in discipline. Meetings of 
ministers and elders also responded to queries. 

Removal - A certificate of removal is a document given to 

persons who are transferring their membership from one 

meeting to another, their removal testifies that they are 

members in good standing with the meetings they leave. 

Separation of 1827 - As a result of a schism among Quakers 
in 1827 in Philadelphia, two Philadelphia Yearly Meetings 
were formed which were called informally Hicksite or "Race 
Street" and Orthodox or "Arch Street." 

Testimonies - Traditionally, Quakers developed a series of 
specific practices, often called testimonies which expressed 
ethical conduct of truthfulness, simplicity, equality, and 
peace. Testimonies include rejection of oaths, use of "thee" 
and "thou" in speech, plain dress, refusal to take off hats 
to social superiors, equality of men and women, opposition 
to slavery, and refusal to bear arms. Testimonies also can 
refer to official documents, frequently disownments and 
memorials, prepared by Quaker business meetings as part of 
what they considered witnessing to truth. 

Traveling certificate or minute - A document issued by a 
meeting to a member in good standing (normally a recorded 



340 
minister), allowing him or her to travel to other meetings 
to visit or preach. 

Wilburite Friends - Orthodox Quakers who identified with the 
prominent Rhode Island Quaker minister John Wilbur (1774 - 
1856). Wilburites, sometimes called Conservative Friends, 
emphasized the plain life, separation from the world, strict 
enforcement of the discipline, guidance by the Inward Light, 
and close adherence to the writings of early Quakers. A 
major schism developed among Orthodox Quakers in the Midwest 
in the 1 850' s, but the Philadelphia Yearly Meeting (Orthodox) 
maintained a fragile unity, despite tensions between a 
Wilburite majority and a Gurneyite minority. 

Women's Meeting - Separate business meetings for women 
alongside the men's meetings were held by preparative, 
monthly, quarterly, and yearly meetings. Women appointed 
representatives, communicated with other women's meetings, 
granted or received certificates of removal, approved 
marriages for women members. The men's meeting rarely 
overruled the women's meeting on removals, marriages or 
questions regarding matters of discipline. Women usually had 
to work with much smaller funds than men's meetings. 
Gradually, beginning late in the nineteenth century, men and 
women met jointly to conduct business. 



341 
Yearly Meeting - a large autonomous body of Quakers, which 
meets for several days once a year. In theory, its decisions 
are binding on the monthly and quarterly meetings within its 
jurisdiction and on the committees and staff which carry out 
the work of the yearly meeting. It meets annually to conduct 
business, formulate the discipline, receive reports and 
concerns from its constituent meetings, review the state of 
the society, and communicate with other yearly meetings and 
non-Quaker organizations. 



342 
Bibliography 



Alexander, William. Observations on the Construction and 
Fitting up of Meeting Houses, Ec For Public Worship. 
York: William Alexander, 1820. 

Anderson, Sharon and Newbury, Meridith, Editors. "A Study of 
the Schools in Shrewsbury from Colonial times, 
Shrewsbury Boro School." Typescript, 1963. 

Andrews, Edward. "A Journal of the Life and Travels of 

Edward Andrews." Copied By Caleb Rapier, and recopied 
by Francis Knowles, 1730. Philadelphia Yearly Meeting 
Manuscripts, Friends Historic Library, Swarthmore 
College, Swarthmore, PA. 

Bacon, Margaret Hope. "A Widening Path: Women in Philadelpia 
Yearly Meeting Move Toward Equality, 1681-1929." in 
Friends In the Delaware Valley, Philadelphia Yearly 
Meeting, 1 681-1981 , edited by John M. Moore. Haverford, 
Pa: Friends Historical Association, 1981. 

Bacon, W. S. "Search of the Title of Friends Property in 
Greenwich, 8-8-12." Deeds, Greenwich Monthly Meeting 
Misc. Papers, Friends Historical Library, Swarthmore 
College, Swarthmore, PA. 

Barton, David A. Discovering Chapels and Meeting Houses. 
Aylesbury: Shire Publications LTD, 1975. 

Beck, Henry C. Forgotten Towns of Southern New Jersey. New 
York: E.P. Dutton & Co., Inc., 1936. 

"Bicentennial Anniversary of Friends Meeting House" Woodbury 
Times, Sept. 27, 1915, Pamphlet Group 1, Woodbury 
Monthly Meeting, Friends Historical Library, Swarthmore 
College, Swarthmore, PA. 

Boedker, Jane Henry. The History of the Woodbury Friends 
Meeting House. Woodbury: Tercentenary Committee of 
Woodbury, 1963, reprinted 1982. 

Blackman, Leah. History of Little Egg Harbor Township from 
its First Settlement to the Present Time. Tuckerton: 
The Great John Mathis Foundation, 1880, reprinted 1963. 

Braithwaite, William C. The Beginnings of Quakerism, 2nd Ed. 
Cambridge: University Press, 1970, reprint. 



343 

Bronner, Edwin B. "The Center Square Meetinghouse and other 
Meetinghouses of Early Philadelphia." Bulletin of the 
Friends Historical Association, 44 (Autumn 1955), 67- 
73. 

An English View Of American Quakerism, The Journal Of 

Walter Robson ( 1842-1929) . Philadelphia: American 
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"Burlington Friends Meeting House, The Old and the New High 
Street, Burlington. N.J." newspaper clipping. Pamphlet 
Group 1 , Burlington Monthly Meeting, Friends Historical 
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Butler, David M. "Seventeenth Century Friends Meeting Houses 
in England, Tentative Draft." Typescript, 1955. 

Quaker Meeting Houses of the Lake Counties . London: 

Friends Historical Society, 1978. 

"Quaker Meeting Houses in America and England: 

Impressions and Comparisons." Quaker History, 79 
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Card, Marian. "Early Church Architecture In New Jersey." 
Master's Thesis, Oberlin College, 1946. 

Cary, Nancy L. "The Architecture of American Quaker Meeting 
Houses." Report, Feb 14, 1949, Fine Arts 540, American 
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